TOM UTLEY: The day I realised I’m not a lonely outsider in my own country


TOM UTLEY: The day I realised I’m not a lonely outsider in my own countryBy Tom Utley

Last updated at 10:38 AM on 9th December 2011

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Do you ever feel, in your gloomier moments, that you don’t really belong in modern Britain? Are there times when you worry that your attitudes and instincts have fallen far behind the times, leaving you out of kilter with the great mass of your fellow countrymen? I’ve felt like that at least ten times a week.

I’ve felt it as I’ve driven through a ravishing part of the countryside, when suddenly a vast, menacing wind-farm has loomed over the brow of the next hill. There’s one dominating the skyline above Stirling Castle, where Mary Queen of Scots was crowned, which fair breaks my heart.

Was this desecration of one of the noblest views in these democratic islands really a response to the will of the people? So the authorities would have us believe.
Out of touch: David Cameron appears pleased, but the latest British Social Attitudes survey shows that the public do not support many policies
I’ve felt it when I’ve heard MPs of every party, even some of the richest, boasting that they always use the NHS and would never dream of going private. Would their constituents honestly think the worse of them if they took out private health insurance instead of adding to the strains on the NHS?

Clearly, this is what most politicians calculate. But, if so, what a blow to my once firmly-held belief in the fundamental common sense and good nature of the British people.

This same feeling of being the odd man out struck me again yesterday, when Radio 4’s Woman’s Hour was droning on in the background with a report on an architecture prize for a new school in South London.

Some woman was telling us what a great shame it was that the Coalition had cut back Ed Balls’s school building programme, claiming that education standards would suffer because it was impossible for children to learn properly in temporary buildings.

There were stacks of statistics and other evidence to prove it, she said, without actually quoting any.

I thought this a highly questionable theory (although the BBC presented it more as a point of information), believing that good teachers mattered far more to a child’s education than modern buildings.
Enlarge Against 54 per cent of the public, who believe Job Seekers Allowance is too high, George Osborne surrendered to the Lib Dems demand that it should increase by 5.2 per cent
Perhaps I was the only one shouting at the radio that the more money this Government could save, the better for everyone — and that cancelling fancy new construction projects was as good a place as any to start.

But now, joy of joys, I discover that I’m not nearly such an eccentric stranger in my own land and times as I was beginning to fear. On the contrary, my views about almost every subject under the sun are slap, bang in the mainstream of popular opinion. And far from slipping out of fashion, they’re becoming more generally accepted with every passing year. Reader, I belong!

More from Tom Utley… A lesson from my great-uncle Pat about why (despite all the gloom) people are so goddam chirpy 01/12/11 ‘Thank you’ may be going out of fashion – but I’m cool with ‘cheers’ if it’s from the heart 24/11/11 The childlike thrill of a mystery parcel, a maddening trip to the sorting office, and why the Royal Mail really is second class 10/11/11 TOM UTLEY: Blistering barnacles! Tintin in the Congo makes me queasy but does it really belong on the top shelf? 03/11/11 If Vince Cable can’t work out his own tax returns, how on earth are the rest of us supposed to? 27/10/11 So, we all get wiser over 55? How does that explain why I boarded the wrong train – yet again! 20/10/11 So, Shirl the Pearl, are you still so smugly certain our ‘caring’ NHS does not need reform? 14/10/11 The BBC’s wasteful bosses convince me it’s gone bonkers 06/10/11 VIEW FULL ARCHIVE I’m indebted for this revelation to the latest British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey, the Government’s massive annual focus-group, whose findings for 2010 are published this week.

This wonderfully cheering document has fully restored my faith in my fellow countrymen’s deep-down intelligence and common sense, and their refusal to be bamboozled by cant.

The picture it paints of the real Britain is about as far removed as it’s possible to imagine from the fantasy version accepted by every mainstream political party and promoted tirelessly by the BBC and the Left-wing media.

Take climate change. For David Cameron, it was an article of faith from the start that the Conservatives’ chances of election would be greatly improved if they adopted the radical policies espoused by the environmentalist lobby. In his view, this was an essential part of his party’s make-over, vital to his popular appeal.

Hence the windmill on his roof and his jetting off to a Norwegian glacier to be photographed hugging a husky. Hence, too, the slogan that gave him so much pride and pleasure: ‘Vote blue, go green.’

Labour and the Lib-Dems were the same, fiercely competing with each other to be seen as greener-than-thou, in the apparent belief that this would play a treat with the electorate.

Turn to the BSA, however, and you’ll see what the voters were really thinking during election year. It shows that while the political parties were turning ever greener, the people they were fighting to represent were growing increasingly sceptical of the claims of the man-made climate change lobby.

In the year 2000, only 24 per cent believed environmental threats were being exaggerated. Just ten years on, the figure is up to 37  per cent. Yes, we sceptics are still in the minority, but the wind is blowing our way.

Incidentally, the non-metaphorical wind was blowing so hard yesterday that wind turbines all over Scotland and the North had to be switched off.
A £2million, 100metre-tall wind turbine caught fire in hurricane-force winds at Ardrossan, North Ayrshire, Scotland, during severe weather
Truly, the more we see alternative energy working in practice (or, rather, not working), the more fatuous and wasteful it seems. Doesn’t this go at least a little way towards explaining the public’s growing disenchantment?

75 per cent of us blame child poverty on parents’ drug and alcohol problems rather than ‘big society’
Where green taxes are concerned, the shift in public opinion is just as pronounced. A decade ago, 31 per cent backed them to combat climate change. Last year, that minority had shrunk to a mere 22 per cent. Yet this doesn’t seem to stop my old schoolmate, that prize ass Chris Huhne, from piling them on. But then when have the Lib Dems, wrapped up in their self-righteous certainties, ever cared a hoot about what the rest of us may think?

It’s the same story with health policy. Over the years, I’ve heard it said a million times that the British people are unshakeably attached to current funding model of the NHS. So often, indeed, that I myself had almost come to believe that most of the public had a visceral horror of the idea of turning to anyone but the state for their medical needs.

Mr Cameron clearly thought much the same, when he made it a central plank of his election manifesto that the Tories would ring-fence spending on the NHS and fight to their last breath to defend it from the taint of privatisation.

But look at the survey findings. Only 24 per cent say that paying for private healthcare is wrong — down from 38 per cent in 1999. This is a huge drop in just a decade, representing a revolutionary shift from faith in the power of the state to self-reliance.

That shift is even more marked in the numbers who believe taxes should rise to pay for health and education. As recently as 2002, 63  per cent said they should. By last year, the figure had more than halved to 31 per cent.

Many put this down to the recession. But can’t it equally be attributed to the experience of the boom years, when Labour poured untold billions of our money into hospitals and schools, to almost negligible effect? Indeed, when it comes to education, the popular perception — as opposed to the fantasy peddled by the fiddled exam grades — is that standards have fallen, not risen.

On social problems, too, the BSA shows attitudes wildly at variance with the official line plugged so remorselessly by the political Establishment.
The number who believe taxes should rise to pay for education has almost halved
Apparently, most of us don’t believe that ‘society is to blame’ for child poverty. A whacking 75 per cent put it down to parents’ drug and alcohol problems, with more than half also blaming family breakdown — and a remarkable 63 per cent attributing it to parents’ unwillingness to work.

Meanwhile, 54 per cent think unemployment benefits are too high — up from just 35  per cent in 1983. Yet only last week, George Osborne surrendered to the Lib Dems’ demand that Jobseekers’ Allowance should increase by 5.2 per cent — more than five times as much as a front-line soldiers’ pay.

As he studies this portrait of the real Britain, shouldn’t Mr Cameron reflect that if only he’d presented a truly conservative manifesto to the country, he might have won an overall majority?

Mind you, there’s one BSA finding that doesn’t surprise me in the least: in 1997, 73  per cent of Britons aged 18-35 turned out to vote in the general election. Last year, the figure was down to 47 per cent. But then who can blame those who didn’t bother, when there’s not a single party in the land that speaks for the real Britain?

Read more:


Against 54 per cent of the public, who believe Job Seekers Allowance is too high, George Osborne surrendered to the Lib Dems demand that it should increase by 5.2 per cent


5.2% JSA…





The British General Election campaign to date has been a painful exercise in empty rhetoric fronted by controlled political puppets trying to convince an embittered and sceptical electorate that they have something worthwhile to contribute, which is not the case.

On the one hand, the discredited, always rather dirty-looking (like Paul Wolfowitz) Gordon Brown, whose stewardship of the British financial economy has been beyond disastrous, has been forced to run around the country practicing his false smile (which he has the greatest difficulty at all times in achieving) for the benefit of unimpressed hangers-on at ‘schools’nhospitals’ (all one word). To this Tweedledum is pitted Tweedledumber, this Cameron fellow – who has no message whatsoever beyond the word ‘change’ – a revolutionary slogan which deliberately and obtusely begs the basic question: change TO WHAT?

By not defining any terms at all, these empty cardboard characters imagine that they can pull the wool over the British electorate’s eyes with impunity. But the British electorate is not stupid – as a senior so-called ‘Conservative’ informed The Times (6) on 13th April.

‘It’s a phoney war right now, but that’s not because of any lack of fighting’, this fellow confided.

‘It’s because they think we’re all fakes’.

Notice that the blame for this delusion is implicitly foisted on the electorate, which ‘thinks’ ‘we are all fakes’, so that the problem the ‘Conservatives’ faced was ‘how to convince them that we’re not fakes’. Manifestly that’s impossible, not least given that the ‘Conservative’ Party, which exists to CONSERVE rather than to OVERTHROW everything, has nothing to offer beyond its ‘change’ slogan, with no definition of terms so that no-one knows what Cameron seeks to ‘change’ the country TO. Obviously, the ‘Conservatives’ don’t know, or won’t say’.

Given this vacuum at the epicenter of the ‘Conservative’ Party’s offering to the electorate, it’s hardly surprising that ‘they think we’re all fakes’, because that’s exactly what these people are.

And WHY are they fakes?

The underlying reason is that they are purporting to be concerned with issues affecting ‘ordinary people’, and to have ‘the answers’ to ‘their’ problems – whereas in reality, these cardboard fakes are marionettes dancing to diversionary tunes orchestrated by the internationalist agenda, which embraces the sterile corruption of Britain’s membership of the European Union Collective.

Has this sacred cow even been MENTIONED in the campaign by any of the three main parties?

You guessed correctly: the answer is NO*. It’s a taboo subject: and yet, as we’ve seen even with the jackboot imposition by regulation by a KGB officer masquerading as the European Transport Commissioner, the internationalist agenda is poised to destroy the British economy, to stifle all dissent – and to achieve all this simply by means of COLLECTIVIST REGULATION.

* However the televised ‘Debate’ scheduled for 22nd April is on foreign policy, so the issue has been boxed into a controlled format from which it stands little chance of further ventilation.

Complicating the charades being acted out by Tweedledum and Tweedledumber has been the emergence of the Foreign Office atheist – another straw character, namely, the leader of the Liberal Democrats, ‘Nick’ Clegg, who wants to abolish the religious basis of ancient schools, to impose a ‘mansion tax’ and to scrap the pound in favour of the failing Euro, and whose stock rose sharply after the Tweedles made relative fools of themselves with their empty pronouncements and contradictory inanities during the first TV Election ‘Debate’.

It was of course a catastrophic error of judgment for David Cameron to have agreed to these TV ‘debates’, since they provide an opportunity for the third empty vessel to impress itself upon the confused minds of the disillusioned people.

And given that the jaded electorate remains unimpressed with the Tweedles, any first-year student of politics could have told ‘Conservative’ Central Office that the effect would be liable to catapult the third ‘candidate’ into the public consciousness, given the disillusionment with the others, with disastrous consequences for the fake ‘Conservatives’. Which is precisely what has happened. And the consequences for the ‘Conservative’ Party may be terminal.

Clegg is a self-professed, left-wing atheist, married to a Spaniard, whom he met when he was an official in Brussels, seconded there from the Foreign Office – a hotbed for several generations of treachery against British interests and its survival as a nation state.

Since, as a direct consequence of Cameron’s ill-advised agreement to participate with the Liberal Democrat leader in the televised Election ‘Debates’, the outcome of this controlled UK election is likely to be a combined majority for the Liberal Democrats and the Labour Party, the prospect, at the time of writing, appeared to be that the incoming government will be by far the furthest left of any government Britain has ever been saddled with.

Moreover the ‘Conservative’ Party could be destroyed and marginalised. The Liberal Democrats will demand, as their ‘price’ for collaboration with Labour, electoral reform, namely a flaky system of proportional representation – guaranteed to ensure weak governments in perpetuity, and to keep the ‘Conservatives’ permanently out of power.

In other words, due to the stupidity of ‘Conservative’ Central Office, the United Kingdom is on the verge of lurching sharply and irretrievably to the left – in precise accordance with the Gorbachëv formula, exposed in The European Union Collective, of procuring the permanent liquidation of all parties that are not of the left

Of course, as you can see from our report entitled ‘ALL UK LEGISLATION SINCE 2000 IS NULL AND VOID’, which did indeed ‘go viral’, if the incoming Government does not deal immediately, before doing anything else, with rectification of the Letters Patent issue affecting the Hereditary Peers, all legislation passed by the new Westminster Parliament will wind up as invalid as the legislation that earlier Parliaments under Blair and Brown have squandered a decade passing since 2000.

• In this connection, some people seem to think that because challenges concerning the Letters Patent issue have been rejected by the UK High Court, the issue is dead. That indicates a degree of perversity and dim-wittedness that only inspires contempt. Such blanket assertions overlook the fact that Baroness Ashton of Upholland made the damning pronouncement that she made in the House of Lords, which is recorded in Hansard. Her statement left the position crystal clear, as anyone who re-reads our report dated 11th April 2010 on this issue can easily understand.

And if it turns out that President Barrack Obama is an illegitimate impostor (as the Editor is not an American citizen, he cannot pronounce on this subject, which is for Americans to resolve), it will likewise follow that all legislation signed into law by Obama, together with all his Executive Orders, will turn out to have been null and void, as well – enabling the institutionalised official kleptocracy to have everything ‘both ways’ (the dialectic and double-mindedness, again), since the situation can be manipulated in accordance with what Lenin called ‘the correlation of forces’.

Meanwhile observers completely omitted to notice or draw attention to a deliberate clue that the British General Election is CONTROLLED and therefore fraudulent. We refer to the fact that the door into the venue used for the first TV Election ‘Debate’ contained an aperture in the shape of a pentastar – that is to say, the five-pointed star to be seen everywhere in the revolutionary United States and everywhere in the covert revolutionary Soviet Union.

Specifically, the all TV cameras honed in on this polished ‘wooden’ door, making sure that ‘the interested’ need not have missed this ‘in-your-face’ presentation of the CLUE to what is going on. Within the pentastar aperture was a second five-pointed star which formed a glass ‘window’ into the TV venue in Manchester.

Now American observers may not be aware that in the United Kingdom, we don’t DO five-pointed stars. This geomasonic, esoteric revolutionary emblem is NOT USED IN BRITAIN AT ALL.

Yet, all of a sudden, a five-pointed star was deliberately built into the specially constructed door, with its window into the ‘New Order’ being unveiled to the gullible members of the general public in attendance, who thought they were there to hear ‘what the leaders have to say’ and to learn about their policies. Instead, they were dumb witnesses to an empty, controlled, and debilitating charade orchestrated in order to sustain the illusion of ‘democracy’ so as to delude the population into believing that the votes to be cast on 6th May are meaningful: whereas the truth is that the main British political parties are all fully signed up to the same sterile internationalist agenda.

Camilla Cavendish writes in an op-ed. piece in The Times, page 21, subtitled: ‘When voters say they want change, they mean an end to a system which favours cheats: in banks or on benefits’:

‘Politicians and bureaucrats could not see that they had fostered a language of bureaucracy and suspicion that was alienating to people who used public services. They stuck to stubborn mantras that exam results were better, nurses angelic. People stopped believing that politicians could understand their lives or speak their language’.

‘Politicians only sensed the anger once the economic tide began to ebb. The credit crunch showed that bankers who had flaunted their wealth as evidence of their superior merit had indulged in the most childish pass-the-parcel schemes that plunged the world economy into the dark [sic]’.

‘Most bankers emerged unscathed and unrepentant, while people who had acted prudently and saved for their futures found themselves paying for the profligacy of those who had racked up enormous debts. Low interest rates benefited mortgage holders at the expense of British savers who are still watching their money shrink in accounts that banks brazenly change every month’.

‘By the time the expenses scandal broke, bringing the realisation not only of so many MPs having their noses in the trough, but just how big the trough actually was, people had stopped listening’.

• However, because the next Government will be fully signed-up to the internationalist agenda, which overrides preoccupations with domestic issues except wherever they can be moulded to accommodate the internationalist (World Revolution) remit, any expectation of ‘change’ in this crucial respect, would be unwarranted.

There will be NO CHANGE until the brainwashed UK political Establishment ceases to cow-tow to the internationalists and until the rogue elements within the UK intelligence services are cleaned out. The idolatry of Europe has to be discarded; and of this, too, there is little hope right now, as dense UK ‘business leaders’ pontificate in The Financial Times today that they ‘want a government working strongly within the European political mainstream…. It is there, and not on the fringes of Europe… where our voice must be heard’.

These deluded ‘business leaders’ regurgitate the same claptrap that has been standard ever since this Editor became active. Here are some of the delusions encased in the foregoing drivel:

• The European Union Collective is a COLLECTIVE. Decisions are taken COLLECTIVELY.

• The COLLECTIVE is indifferent to ‘voices’. No voice can be ‘heard’ in a POLITICAL COLLECTIVE, because ALL DECISIONS ARE TAKEN COLLECTIVELY, so no ‘voice’ has any standing whatsoever.

• The ancient ‘fringes’ of Europe mantra is part of the same infantile delusion. In any POLITICAL COLLECTIVE, it is neither here nor there whether one is ‘at the centre’ of the collective, or on ‘the fringes’ thereof. The geographical location of the ‘voices’, so to speak, is IRRELEVANT: see above.

• These ‘business leaders’ are content that VAT accruals should be remitted into the hands of a criminal enterprise. As we have explained, the European Commission is a criminal enterprise. Its accounts have been explicitly UNAPPROVED by the Court of Auditors for the past 14 years. The UK Serious Fraud Office has CONFIRMED that it is A CRIMINAL OFFENCE for taxpayers’ monies to be paid into the hands of a CRIMINAL ENTERPRISE. Therefore, these British ‘business leaders’ are content for the VAT payments that their businesses have to pay, to be ILLEGALLY paid into the hands of a criminal enterprise, CONTRARY TO THE RULE OF LAW. If that is the case, they are accessories to the fact of their VAT payments being illegally diverted into criminal hands.

• In demanding unqualified support for the European Union Collective, these ‘business leaders’ reveal that, actually, they are de facto fellow-travelling Communists, supporters of Lenin and of the World Revolution, and that they are quite oblivious to the reality of what they are pontificating.



2 responses to “TOM UTLEY: The day I realised I’m not a lonely outsider in my own country



    good article Tom but spoiled by the last sentence “…when there’s not a single party in the land that speaks for the real Britain? There is one party that does speak for the real Britain two of it’s members are bloggers on this Right Minds section, Alex Singleton and Janice Atkinson-Small, that party is of course UKIP. Check out UKIP TV and you will find plenty of videos where Nigel Farage, other UKIP MEPs and ordinary members like David Coburn are doing just that, speaking for the real Britain. Check out the national website where you will find plenty of stories speaking up for Britain as well.
    – Alec Y, Colyton, UK, 09/12/2011 10:04
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    This survey suggests too many Britons read tabloid newspapers and are actually influenced by them. That’s tragic, not something to be celebrated. – Andrew, Durham, 09/12/2011 08:44////////////// Well said. As for this survey, it’s bunkum. Anyone can jump on a statistic and use it for their own ends. “In the year 2000, only 24 per cent believed environmental threats were being exaggerated. Just ten years on, the figure is up to 37  per cent”. Now if I was a global warming sceptic I would say “that is a massive 55% increase”. Sounds a lot doesn’t it? On the other hand if I was passionate about environmental issues I would say “the majority of people believe that environmental threats are not being exaggerated”. Get the idea?
    – My Dyson’s broke again, Bournemouth, UK, 09/12/2011 09:59
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    “Where can I get a bet that the majority of Labour supporters are Public servants (Self Servants more like!)” – Thomas, Leeds I was a Civil servant for forty years and I’ve never voted socialist.
    – John, Surrey, 09/12/2011 09:55
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    A new Clement is born at last.(What would clement say) well said. WE are not alone I think ;”I belong too” could be a new wake up call?
    – Silver Paul, Wenhaston Suffolk, 09/12/2011 09:55
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    “The Social Survey sampled just over 3000 respondents, do you actually think that this is a true representation of how over 60 million people think?” – Kevin, Liverpool, 9/12/2011 0:31 Actually, it is. If you knew anything about statistics, you would know that a sample of that size is highly representative. I suppose youi think that the survey would only be genuine if it asked everyone in the country their opinion. Somehow, I have the feeling that lefties like you would stilll not accept the findings.
    – Mike Gibbs, Kingston, UK, 09/12/2011 09:54

    Read more:



    The pentagram


    What is
    the pentagram?

    Pentagram: from the Greek, “pente”, meaning five and “gramma”, a letter; the pentagram is a five pointed figure formed by producing the sides of a pentagon both ways to their point of intersection, so as to form a five-pointed star. Pentalpha: The triple triangle, from the Greek words meaning five and, alpha, the letter A. [1]

    Capernaum, 300 CE. [5]
    The pentagram (also called pentacle, pentalpha, pentancle, pentagle, or pentangle) is thought by some occultists to trace its esoteric significance to an astronomical observance of the pattern of Venus’ conjunctions with the Sun and has had many meanings in many cultures through the ages. [2]
    Although common usage often is to refer to depictions of a five-pointed star as pentagrams, a distinction can be made. The outline of the pentagram or “endless knot” is a five-pointed star, but the five-pointed star itself does not necessarily represent the pentagram. While religious fundamentalists rarely make any distinction, some occultists and modern Wiccans will make even further distinction and define the pentacle as the pentagram inside a pentagon or circle. Historically, the pentacle referred to any amulet, often incorporating an hexagram. “The words pentagram and pentacle (or pantacle) is not necessarily connected with the number 5. Pentacle probably comes from an old French word for ‘to hang’ and means a talisman or, by extension, any symbol used in magical operations.” [7] There is little agreement on these distinctions.

    Babylon, 900 BCE. [6]
    A further distinction should be made for its usage in European heraldry where stars are generally termed estoiles or mullets. Estoiles, at least in England, will have six wavy rays. Unless specifically described, if the rays are straight the star is termed a mullet and has five points. It should also be pierced since, properly speaking, it does not represent a star but depicts the rowel of a spur. It has no connection with celestial stars or the pentagram. [3]
    Note should also be made to the “barn star”, a decorative illustration, often in the shape of a five-pointed star but occasionally in a circular “wagon wheel” style, used to adorn barns. Originally, and most commonly, seen in German and German-American farming communities, claims of the symbol’s origins as a warding sign are questionable.
    Éliphas Lévi claimed, with no justification or historical precedent, that the pentagram with one point upward represents the good principle and one downward, the evil. It should be noted that many subsequent authors have repeated this arbitrary distinction. [4]

    from Fara [12]
    (c. 2600 BCE)
    What does
    the pentagram

    De Vogel, Goff and Van Buren [1] tell us that the use of the pentagram dates back to Uruk IV (c.3500BCE) in ancient Mesopotamia where the general sense seems to be “heavenly body.” By the cuneiform period (post 2600 BCE) the pentagram or symbol UB means “region,” “heavenly quarter” or “direction”. “That this symbol always has a specific unambiquous meaning continues to be an unsupported hypothesis.”[13] It is found on potsherds in the location of Uruk (near the mouth of the Gulf), and more frequently on Jemdet Nasr (3100-2900 BCE) and Proto-Elamite tablets (3000-2500 BCE). [10] Examples elsewhere are infrequent. [2]

    0.618… : 1 : 1.618… [9]
    Historically, it does not appear to be equated with Venus. Venus is equated with the Sumarian goddess, Ishtar (Ishhara, Irnini, Inanna) whose symbol is an eight or sixteen point star. Amongst the Hebrews, the five point symbol was ascribed to Truth and to the five books of the Pentateuch. In Ancient Greece, it was called the Pentalpha. Pythagorians considered it an emblem of perfection or the symbol of the human being. The pentagram was also associated with the golden ratio (which it includes), and the dodecahedron, the fifth Platonic solid, which has twelve pentagonal faces and was considered by Plato to be a symbol of the heavens. Burkert says that the pentagram had a secret significance and power to the pythagoreans, and was used as a password or symbol of recognition amongst themselves.[3]
    Albert Mackey says that as a talisman for health or good fortune,[18] the pentagram has been found on Egyptian statues and Gaulish coins. [14] He goes on to say, incorrectly, that Druids wore it on their sandals, hence the German Druttenfuss a word originally signifying Druid’s foot. [4] De Vogel cites Eisler for an example of a pentagram on an Attic red-figured cup from the early 5th cent, BCE. [15] Inman mentions what may be a common link between the Greeks, Aryans, and Etruscans; a coin bearing a pentagram and the characters PENSU (Etruscan for five) was found in a fictile urn at Volaterrae and is depicted in Fabretti’s Italian Glossery, plate xxvi., fig. 358, bis a. [5] During the Roman Republic the pentagram represented the building trades. [16] Its use in England may have been associated with the Druids, but was certainly not influenced by the Pythagoreans.[17]

    Bronze coin, Pitane, Mysia, 300-400 BCE.
    Solomonic texts of the Mediaeval period gave great importance to the pentagram, under the name “Solomon’s Seal.” Gershom Scholem writes, “In Arabic magick, the ’seal of Solomon’ was widely used, but at first its use in Jewish circles was restricted to relatively rare cases. Even then, the hexagram and pentagram were easily interchangeable and the name was applied to both figures.” Latin versions of Solomonic texts, used the word “pentaculum” to refer to all the various circular devices associated with Solomon’s seal, even though most of them do not actually contain a pentagram. [6]
    The first English mention of a pentagram appears In the legend of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Stanzas 27-28 (1380 c.) where Gawain, traditionally the Celtic sun-hero, carries a shield “…shining gules, With the Pentangle in pure gold depicted thereon.”
    It is a symbol which Solomon conceived once
    To betoken holy truth, by its intrinsic right,
    For it is a figure which has five points,
    And each line overlaps and is locked with another;
    And it is endless everywhere, and the English call it,
    In all the land, I hear, the Endless Knot.
    Here the pentacle represents the five wits, the five fingers, the five wounds of Christ, the five pure joys of Heaven’s queen with her child and the five virtues: generosity, fellowship, purity, courtesy and mercy.

    Gold coin, 209 BCE. [7]
    The upright pentagram resembles the shape of man with his legs and arms outstretched. Tycho Brahe, in his Calendarium Naturale Magicum Perpetuum (1582) illustrates a pentagram with human body imposed and the Hebrew for YHSVH associated with the elements. An illustration attributed to Brahe’s contemporary, Henry Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim, is of similar proportion and shows the five planets and the moon at the centre point. [†] Other illustrations of the period by Robert Fludd and Leonardo da Vinci show geometric relationships of man to the universe.
    Mephistopheles, in Goethe’s Faust (1808) calls the pentagram a witch’s foot as a charm to guard against evil but doesn’t determine its alignment:
    Mephistopheles. Let me own up! I cannot go away;
    A little hindrance bids me stay.
    The witch’s foot upon your sill I see.
    Faust. The pentagram? That’s in your way?
    You son of Hell explain to me,
    If that stays you, how came you in today?
    And how was such a spirit so betrayed?
    Mephistopheles. Observe it closely! It is not well made;
    One angle, on the outer side of it,
    Is just a little open, as you see. [22]

    The reference to it being open is ascribed to the contemporary knowledge that the planet Venus is not in exact resonance with Earth.
    Jemdet Nasr [11]
    In ancient times the “Star of the Sea” was sometimes depicted as an inverted pentagram. This may explain why those early American flags that displayed inverted stars — such as that flown by Commodore Matthew Perry in 1854 — were connected with the navy. [20]
    Modern Wicca has developed its own significance for the pentagram, derived from a limited selection of sources : “A pentacle is a physical representation of the pentagram, a five-pointed star in a circle, which symbolizes the four elements in balance with Spirit and is drawn like this: [illust. one point up in circle].[21]
    It can be seen, then, that the pentagram has evolved, from a pre-Christian symbol for a Mesopotamian city or later symbol for health or the heavens, to an early Christian symbol for Christ Transfigured, or truth, and then to a mediaeval talisman to guard against evil. Its re-emergence as a humanist or hermetic symbol of man’s relationship to the cosmos and its later reversal from a symbol guarding against evil to a symbol representing evil has been ascribed to many causes. Midwives and herbalists note that their practice of medicine has often been proscribed as witchcraft; their use of a symbol of health was as misunderstood as their own practices were reviled by paternalistic and oppressive theocracies. [8] Students of religious intolerance have noted that a symbol that can be ascribed to the Jews, Arabs or pagans will inevitably acquire negative connotations in the zenophobic climate of mediaeval Europe. These theories lose weight when the pentagram’s use by the medical profession of the 16th century is noted. [19] The root causes are difficult, if not impossible, to document. The only real fact to be gleaned from this history is that the pentagram had, and has, many meanings.

    Jerusalem seal [9]
    Is the
    a Christian

    Constantine’s seal[12]
    The pentacle’s use in the City Seal of Jerusalem has led to its confusion with the variously titled Seal, Shield, or Star of Solomon. Early Christians attributed the pentagram to the Five Stigmata of Christ or the doctrine of the Trinity plus that of the two natures of Christ. According to Biedermann, from then until mediaeval times, it was a lesser-used Christian symbol. [1] Its form implied truth, religious mysticism and the work of Creator. Roman Emperor Constantine I, after his defeat of Maxentius and the issuance of the Edict of Milan in 312CE, ascribed his success to his conversion to Christianity and incorporated the pentagram, one point down, into his seal and amulet. [12]
    Webber tells us that “…the five-pointed star signifies our Lord’s Epiphany” and that it is a symbol of the “revelation of the Christ Child to the Gentile wisemen.” He warns that “It must not be used as a Christmas symbol.” He also defined it as the Star of Jesse, or of Jacob and assigns it the meaning of Heavenly Wisdom. He illustrates it with one point up but doesn’t define the alignment in his text. [2] Hume notes that “It was at one time used by the Greek Christians in liu of the cross at the beginning of inscriptions….” [3]
    Templar gravestone, Tomar, Portugal (Rod Thorn photo)
    Although other authors have claimed the five-pointed star as a Christian symbol, describing it as the “Jesus’ star” or the “Star in the East”, a review of Christian art from the early Mediaeval period to the Renaissance will reveal few examples. [4] Becker refers to the pentagram as a symbol of Christ as Alpha and Omega, and as a symbol of the five wounds of Christ. The five-pointed star is also defined as a symbol of Christ, “the bright and morning star”: and, inverted, one point down, it represents the descent of Christ — i.e., His Incarnation. [5] An early depiction, reproduced by Eckhardt, from a carving on a wall in the Baptistory of St. John at Split in Yugoslavia is dated from the eleventh century. The site was originally the Temple of Aescielapius, a god of medicine. [6] (Encyclopedia Britannica,vol. 11, p. 107, terms it a Temple of Jupiter.)
    Baptistory of St. John [6]
    While depictions of the five-pointed star or pentagram equating it with Jesus are rare, it should be also noted that they are non-existent in any depiction of the Devil or Satan before Éliphas Lévi’s nineteenth century Baphomet. [7]
    There are a number of examples of the pentagram found on buildings of a religious nature in Europe. [13] Notable examples can be seen on gravestones in the Claustro da Lavagem in the Convento at Tomar, Portugal, the monastery of Ravna, Bulgaria and the Church of All Saints at Kilham, Humberside, Yorkshire, England, which incorporates the symbol on the columns which support the Norman doorway. [10] It is indented on the gateposts of the churchyard of S. Peter’s, Walworth, England, built in 1824. [11] There are also a number of examples in the sketchbook of thirteenth century stonemason, Villard de Honnecourt. [8]
    Further examples of the pentagram’s use in Christian architecture can be found in a large carved inverted star in the centre of the north transept rose window of Amiens Cathedral in France, built between 1220 and 1410 C.E.; a huge inverted five-pointed star on the steeple of the Marktkirche, or Market Church in fourteenth century Hanover, Germany; the numerous inverted stars that surround a statue of Mary and the Christ Child in Chartres Cathedral circa 1150 C.E.; the interlaced star depicted in the “Berthold Missal” drawn in the Benedictine Abbey in Weingarten Germany circa 1225 C.E.; an inverted nativity star in the sculpted capital of a cloister pillar from the twelfth century C.E.; and various Orthodox paintings that illustrate the Mount of Transfiguration.[14]

    Is the
    pentagram a

    The masonic significance of the pentagram is controversial. While it often appears on masonic regalia and decorative illustration, nowhere is it mentioned in masonic rituals or lectures. This does not mean though, that individual freemasons, aware of its historical usage, have not used it to illustrate their own personal interpretations of Freemasonry.
    The “Blazing Star” of masonic usage is not to be confused with the five-pointed star. Early tracing boards depict a sixteen or fifteen point star, one notable five pointed pentalpha and a number of “glories” with no discernable number of points. Mackey points out that the earlier tracing boards depicted a star with five straight points superimposed over one with five wavy points.
    Freemasonry has traditionally been associated with Pythagoras, and among Pythagoreans, the pentagram was a symbol of health and knowledge; the pentagram is consequently associated with initiation, as it is in masonic iconography. From Coil’s Encyclopedia: “The Pentalpha is said to have had a great many symbolic and mystical meanings, but it has no application to Freemasonry….”
    Mackey tells us “The Medieval Freemason considered it a symbol of deep wisdom, and it is found among the architectural ornaments of most of the ecclesiastical edifices of the Middle Ages.” There are also many examples of both the pentagram and five-pointed star being used as stonemasons’ marks during the Mediaeval cathedral building period. Although claims have been made for earlier usage, the greater number of examples date from the twelfth through sixteenth centuries. [1] George Godwin claims that these marks were handed down from generation to generation and could still be found up until the nineteenth century. [2]
    One notable early use of a pentalpha in Freemasonry is the mark of Sir Robert Moray, who used it when he signed the Minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh, Mary’s Chapel sometime after his initiation on May 20, 1641. He is recorded as using it in his signature prior to this date so, although he referred to it as his mason’s mark, it was not derived from masonic teachings. Later it appears on the titlepage of a collection of masonic lectures, The Spirit of Masonry, published in 1775.
    The use of a five-pointed star or pentagram in some Grand Lodge seals and banners as well as on the collar or jewels of office worn by the masters of lodges and Grand Masters of Grand Lodges is of interest to students of masonic history and art. But its absence from the ritual and lessons of Freemasonry point out that its value is ornamental and any symbolic value is a matter of personal opinion. Many masonic authors have expressed their opinions on the topic, but with no masonic authority.
    The pentagram, or five-pointed star, can be interpreted as a representation of the golden ratio. The golden ratio was of great importance to architects and stonecutters. Whether early freemasons made this interpretation is a topic of some controversy.
    Those who would freeze the angle of the compasses in the masonic square and compasses at 72° to equate it with the pentagram, ignore the many representations which set the angle at anywhere between 32° and 90°.
    As regards that appendant body, the Order of the Eastern Star, Mackey notes that Rob Morris, author of their ritual, wrote that the choice of name was made to correspond to the masonic Five Points of Fellowship and the pentagon which he termed “The signet of King Solomon.”

    Is the
    with two points
    ascendant a
    symbol for

    It has long been a truism within occult circles that the pentagram, when one point is ascendant, is a symbol for the positive principle, and when two points are ascendant it is a symbol for the negative principle.
    This is derived from a claim made by Éliphas Lévi that the direction of the rays of the pentagram determine if it represents the good or evil principle: one point up representing order and light, two points up representing disorder and darkness. Lévi gives no justification or citation for this arbitrary distinction and goes on to arbitrarily equate the pentagram as a symbol for the Baphomet or goat headed god. [1] This ignores, or distorts, the pentagram’s inclusion, one point down, in Constantine’s seal, the later mediaeval depiction of it as a medical symbol of health, and its Christian representation as a symbol of the Transfiguration of Christ.
    Aleistar Crowley wrote that the point down pentagram indicates the individual (microcosm) in a “Solar orientation”, meaning not “earth oriented”. Also that it had been used as a symbol of the Baphomet, the great androgyne. He interpreted the “averse” pentagram to indicate the New Aeon transcendance of the old Osirian/Christian limitations. [2]
    Manly P. Hall made the further startling claim that ‘the star may be broken at one point by not permitting the converging lines to touch; it may be inverted by having one point down and two up; it may be distorted by having the points of varying lengths. When used in black magic, the pentagram is called the “sign of the cloven hoof,” or the footprint of the Devil.’ Like so many esoteric writers, he fails to provide any evidence. [3]
    No known graphical illustration associating the pentagram with evil appears until Lévi in the nineteenth century. The Inquisition of the early 1300s does not appear to have made a connection between the pentagram and the Knights Templar’s alleged worship of the Baphomet. Neither the Rule of the Order, the eleven charges against the Knights Templar, nor the eight Papal Bulls promulgated against them make any mention of the pentagram or its association with the Baphomet. Claims that the pentagram was significant to the Templars appear to be unfounded. Its use in hermetic manuscripts is rare. [See Appendix I for additional illustrations.]
    It is only in the later twentieth century, and the creation of the American Church of Satan, that the inverted pentagram has become a popular symbol for Satan. They ascribe its usage to its appearance in Oswald Wirth’s La Franc-Maçonnerie rendue intelligible a ces adeptes II, “Le compagnon,” Paris: Derry-Livres, 1931, p. 60.

    Is the pentacle a symbol for Wicca?

    There is no connection between Satanism which can be defined as a Christian heresy, and Wicca, which encompasses a range of faiths based on a pantheistic earth worship or modern interpretations of what has been termed the Old Religion. Wicca,though, has also laid claim to the pentagram. On 30 June 2006 The Pagan Pride Project issued a statement in “support of the efforts of other Pagan organizations, including the Lady Liberty League, the Covenant of the Goddess, the Aquarian Tabernacle Church, the Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans, Circle Sanctuary and others, to influence the United States Department of Veterans Affairs to grant official recognition of the pentacle, a universally recognized symbol of Wicca and other Pagan faiths, as a symbol permitted on the headstones of Pagan servicepersons who have died as members of the American armed forces.”
    Summum, while not wiccan, can be listed under the broad catagory of “new age”. They have registered what they term the Divine Logo, the pentagram, circumscribed by a pentagon and circle, as the trademark of Summum (U.S. Reg. No. 1,270,427).

    Agrippa (1531) [2]
    Is there
    a link between Satan and Lucifer?

    There is no Biblical authority to claims that Lucifer and Satan are names for the same being.
    In Revelation, Jesus referred to himself as the bright and morning star (Rev 22:16). In 1263 Pope Clement V commissioned the Franciscan monk, Roger Bacon, to investigate apparent problems arising from this translation. Bacon discovered papers by Jerome where, on his deathbed, the latter recanted the Latin Vulgate translation due to errors caused by haste. Jerome particularly singled out the Isaian translations. Bacon’s report that “Lucifer” was the Messiah and not the devil earned him incarceration until he recanted. [1]

    Jerusalem seal [1]
    Is there a link between the pentagram and Venus?

    A curious, and somewhat astronomically irrelevent, occurance of cyclical positions of Venus will determine the points of a pentagram figure in the morning or evening sky during certain times of the year. Plotting the recurrence of Venus’ westward elongation from the Sun, over six consecutive synodic periods, will create the points of a pentagram. Historically though, the pentagram has not been a symbol for Venus, neither planet nor goddess.

    Medal of Honor (USA)
    How is the pentagram used today?

    Recalling the distinction between a pentagram, or endless knot, and a five-pointed star; the pentagram is rarely used outside of esoteric or occult circles. Its use in promoting rock music — specifically heavy metal — is noteworthy only as an example of the evolution of the symbol and the lack of real content.
    That said, the five-pointed star, as a symbol of power and authority, bravery, honour and virtue, is an ever-present icon. Almost exclusively depicted with one point up, the five-pointed star is found on police badges, military vehicles, fourteen American state flags and on at least forty-five national flags. The Moroccan flag was the only one to depict the pentagram until 6 February 1996 when the Ethiopian government added a yellow pentagram on a blue disk to the more popular flag of green-yellow-red horizontal bands, adopted in 1897. A rare usage with one point down can be found on the American Congressional Medal of Honor.
    Further study would reveal many other uses of the five-pointed star in corporate logos, commercial advertising, cinema, popular culture, and in all forms of graphic design. It is not exclusive to any one nationality, religion, faith or creed. It simply represents what the user wants it to represent.

    Appendix i
    A selection of Mesopotamian, Mediaeval, Renaissance and other pentagrams:

    Appendix ii
    Examples of pentagram usage from the mid-nineteenth century to the present:

    Appendix iii
    Examples of pentagram usage in corporate logos and commercial advertising.

    Appendix iv
    Examples of pentagram usage from cinema.

    Appendix v
    Examples of pentagram usage from popular culture

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