How Palestine Became Israel

How Palestine became Israel

The Catastrophe
Al Nakba

How Palestine Became Israel

If Americans Knew
Last Updated May 15, 2009

http://ifamericansknew.org/history/ref-nakba.html

In the late 1800s a small, fanatic movement called “political Zionism” began in Europe. Its goal was to create a Jewish state somewhere in the world. Its leaders settled on the ancient and long-inhabited land of Palestine for the location of this state.1

Palestine’s population at this time was approximately ninety-six percent non-Jewish (primarily Muslim and Christian).2

Over the coming decades Zionist leaders used various strategies to accomplish their goal of taking over Palestine:

1.Encouraging Jewish immigration to Palestine, partly through the invention of such deceptive slogans as “a land without a people for a people without a land,” when, in fact, the land was already inhabited. Since the majority of Jews were not Zionists until after WWII, Zionists used an array of misleading strategies, including secret collaboration with the Nazis, to push immigration.3
2.Convincing a “Great Power” to back this process. By turn, Zionists approached the Ottomans, the British, and the U.S. to further their cause. While the Ottomans turned them down, the British (being promised that American Zionists would push the U.S. to enter World War I on the side of England) eventually acceded, as did the U.S. (due to concerns of politicians like Harry Truman that they would lose elections otherwise).4
3.Buying up the land (sometimes through subterfuges), proclaiming it Jewish for all eternity, and refusing to allow non-Jews to live or work on the purchased land. This was called “redeeming” the land and was financed by a variety of means, including by such wealthy banking families as the Rothschilds.5

Historic Palestine, the land now occupied by the state of Israel, was a multicultural society. During the 1947-49 War, Israel committed at least 33 massacres and expelled over 750,000 Palestinians. (Click graph for large version.)

4.Violence, if such financial dispossession should fail or prove too slow – as it did.6
In the 1930s, Jewish land ownership had increased from approximately 1% to just over 6% of the land, and violence had increased as well. With the emergence of several Zionist terrorist gangs (whose ranks included a number of future Prime Ministers of Israel), there was violent conflict. Numerous people of all ethnicities were killed – then, as now, the large majority of them Christian and Muslim Palestinians.7

The Catastrophe
This growing violence culminated in Israel’s ruthless 1947-49 “War of Independence,”in which at least 750,000 Palestinian men, women, and children were expelled from their homes by numerically superior Israeli forces – half before any Arab armies joined the war. This massive humanitarian disaster is known as ‘The Catastrophe,’ al Nakba in Arabic.8

Zionist forces committed 33 massacres and destroyed 531 Palestinian towns. Author Norman Finkelstein states: “According to the former director of the Israeli army archives, ‘in almost every village occupied by us during the War… acts were committed which are defined as war crimes, such as murders, massacres, and rapes’…Uri Milstein, the authoritative Israeli military historian of the 1948 war, goes one step further, maintaining that ‘every skirmish ended in a massacre of Arabs.’”9

Count Folke Bernadotte, a former official of the Swedish Red Cross who saved thousands of Jews during World War II and was appointed U.N. mediator in Palestine, said of the refugees: “It would be an offence against the principles of elemental justice if these innocent victims of the conflict were denied the right to return to their homes.”10 Bernadotte was assassinated by a Zionist organization led by future Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir.11

Injustice Continues
Over the 60 years since Israel’s founding on May 14, 1948, this profound injustice has continued. Palestinian refugees are the largest remaining refugee population in the world.

1.3 million Palestinians live in Israel as “Israeli citizens,” but despite their status as citizens, they are subject to systematic discrimination. Many are prohibited from living in the villages and homes from which they were violently expelled, and their property has been confiscated for Jewish-only uses. In Orwellian terminology, Israeli law designates these internal refugees as “present absentees.”12

In 1967 Israel launched its third war and seized still more Palestinian (and other Arab) land. Israel also attacked a U.S. Navy ship, the USS Liberty, killing and injuring over 200 Americans, an event that remains largely covered-up today, despite efforts by an extraordinary array of high-level military officers and civilian officials to expose it.13

Israel occupied the West Bank and Gaza Strip – the final 22% of mandatory Palestine – and began building settlements for Jewish Israelis on land confiscated from Palestinian Muslims and Christians. It has demolished more than 18,000 Palestinian homes since 1967. In 2005 Israel returned Gazan land to its owners, but continues to control its borders, ports, and air space, turning Gaza into a large prison, where 1.5 million people are held under what a UN Human Rights Commissioner described as “catastrophic” conditions.

Over 11,000 Palestinian men, women, and children are imprisoned in Israeli jails under physically abusive conditions (many have not even been charged with a crime) and the basic human rights of all Palestinians under Israeli rule are routinely violated. Some prisoners tortured by Israel have been American citizens. In the violence that began in fall, 2000 through Jan 18, 2009, Israeli forces killed 6,288 Palestinians; Palestinian resistance groups killed 1,071 Israelis. Israel’s military, the fourth most powerful on earth possesses hundreds of nuclear weapons.14

American Involvement
American taxpayers give Israel approximately $7 million per day – far more than we give to all of sub-Saharan Africa put together. In its 60 years of existence, Israel, the size of New Jersey, has received more of our tax money than any other nation on earth. While most Americans are unaware of these facts (studies have shown that media report on Israeli deaths at rates up to 13 times greater than they report on Palestinian deaths) our governmental actions are making us responsible for a continuing catastrophe of historic proportions – and which is, in addition, creating extremely damaging enmity to the US itself. Israel partisans have played a significant role in promoting U.S. attacks on Iraq and Iran.15

American taxpayers give Israel approximately $7 million per day, even though surveys reveal that 73% of Americans oppose taking sides on Israel-Palestine. Because of Israel’s powerful US lobby, Congress gives far more money to Israel than to all of sub-Saharan Africa put together. In its 60 years of existence, Israel, the size of New Jersey, has received more U.S. tax money than any other nation. While most Americans are unaware of these facts (studies have shown that media report on Israeli deaths at rates up to 13 times greater than they report on Palestinian deaths) governmental actions are making Aamericans responsible for a continuing catastrophe of historic proportions – and which is, in addition, creating extremely damaging enmity to the US itself. Israel partisans have played a significant role in promoting U.S. attacks on Iraq and Iran.16

As more Americans learn the facts, there is a growing bipartisan, multi-ethnic movement to counter Israel’s US lobby, which has long has held a vicegrip on American Mideast policies.

Palestinian Loss of Land 1946-2005

“Confusion about the origins of the conflict all too often has obscured Americans’ understanding of its true dimension. It began as a conflict resulting from immigrants struggling to displace the local majority population. All else is derivative from this basic reality.”

– Donald Neff, former Senior Editor, Time Magazine, Fallen Pillars: U.S. Policy towards Palestine and Israel since 1945

“[T]he story of 1948… is the simple but horrific story of the ethnic cleansing of Palestine… Retrieving it from oblivion is incumbent upon us, not just as a greatly overdue act of historiographical reconstruction or professional duty; it is… the very first step we must take if we ever want reconciliation to have a chance, and peace to take root, in the torn lands of Palestine and Israel.”

– Ilan Pappe, Israeli Historian, The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine

“The Palestinian Holocaust is unsurpassed in history. For a country to be occupied, emptied of its people, its physical and cultural landmarks obliterated, its destruction hailed as a miraculous act of God, all done according to a premeditated plan, meticulously executed, internationally supported, and still maintained today…”

– Dr. Salman Abu-Sitta, Palestine Right Of Return, Sacred, Legal, and Possible

Recommended Books:
•George W, Ball & Douglas B. Ball, The Passionate Attachment
•Mazin Qumsiyeh, Sharing the Land of Canaan
•Greg Philo and Mike Berry, Israel and Palestine: Competing Histories
•Paul Findley, They Dare to Speak Out
•Ali Abunimah, One Country
•Jonathon Cook, Blood and Religion
•Ilan Pappe, The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine
•Israel Shahak, Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel
•Donald Neff, Fallen Pillars
•Salman Abu-Sitta, Palestine Right of Return, Sacred, Legal, and Possible
•Robert John & Sami Hadawi, Palestine Diary 1914-1945
•Kathleen Christison, Perceptions of Palestine
•John W. Mulhall, CSP, America and the founding of Israel
•Charles D. Smith, Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict
•Nur Masalha, Expulsion of the Palestinians
•Stephen Green, Taking Sides
•Noam Chomsky, Fateful Triangle
•Sami Hadawi, Bitter Harvest
•Virginia Tilley, The One State Solution
•Norman Finkelstein, Beyond Chutzpah
•John Mearsheimer & Stephen Walt, The Israel Lobby
Selected Websites
IfAmericansKnew.org
PalestineRemembered.com

http://ifamericansknew.org/history/ref-nakba.html

US ISRAELI RELATIONS

Using “anti-Semitism” to promote Zionism
Long before Hitler, Zionists were pushing alleged European “anti-Semitism” as a way to procure support for their movement. In 1919 a brilliant young diplomat named Hugh Gibson was nominated to be U.S. Ambassador to Poland. After he arrived in Poland, he began to report that there were far fewer anti-Semitic incidents than being alleged. He wrote his mother: “These yarns are exclusively of foreign manufacture for anti-Polish purposes.”

His dispatches came to the attention of Brandeis and his protégé (and future supreme Court Justice) Felix Frankfurter, who demanded a meeting with Gibson. Gibson later wrote of their accusations:

“I had [they claimed] done more mischief to the Jewish race than anyone who had lived in the last century. They said…that my reports on the Jewish question had gone around the world and had undone their work…. They finally said that I had stated that the stories of excesses against the Jews were exaggerated, to which I replied that they certainly were and I should think any Jew would be glad to know it.”[xlvii]

Frankfurter hinted that if Gibson continued these reports, Zionists would block his confirmation by the Senate.

Gibson was outraged and sent a 21-page letter to the State Department. In it he shared his suspicions that this was part of “a conscienceless and cold-blooded plan to make the condition of the Jews in Poland so bad that they must turn to Zionism for relief.”

In 1923 another American diplomat in Poland, Vice Consul Monroe Kline, confirmed Gibson’s analysis:

“It is common knowledge that [Zionists] are continually and constantly spreading propaganda, through their agencies over the entire world, of political and religious persecution,” adding “The Jew in business oppresses the Pole to a far greater extent than does the Pole oppress the Jew in a political way.”[xlviii]

By 1922 there were 200,000 Zionists in the U.S. and by 1948 this had grown to almost a million.[xlix] The Yiddish press from a very early period espoused the Zionist cause. By 1923 only one New York Yiddish newspaper failed to qualify as Zionist. Yiddish dailies reached 535,000 families in 1927.[l]

Using “anti-Semitism” to promote the Zionist agenda continued during the rise of Hitler, when Zionists sabotaged refugee efforts and at times collaborated with Nazis in their quest to convince the world of the necessity of creating a Jewish state in Palestine.[li]

Journalist Erskine B. Childers, son of a former Irish Prime Minister, wrote:

“One of the most massively important features of the entire Palestine struggle was that Zionism deliberately arranged that the plight of the wretched survivors of Hitlerism should be a ‘moral argument’ which the West had to accept. This was done by seeing to it that Western countries did not open their doors, widely and immediately, to the inmate of the DP [displaced persons] camps. It is incredible that so grave and grim a campaign has received so little attention in accounts of the Palestine struggle – it was a campaign that literally shaped all subsequent history. It was done by sabotaging specific Western schemes to admit Jewish DPs.”[lii]

When FDR made several efforts to provide havens for Nazi refugees, Zionists opposed these projects because they did not include Palestine. Morris Ernst, FDR’s international envoy for refugees, wrote:

“…active Jewish leaders decried, sneered and then attacked me as if I were a traitor. At one dinner party I was openly accused of furthering this plan of freer immigration in order to undermine political Zionism… Zionist friends of mine opposed it.”[liii] Ernst wrote that he found the same fanatical reaction among all Jewish groups and their leaders, who, he found, were “little concerned about human blood if it is not their own.”[liv]

FDR finally gave up, telling Ernst: “We can’t put it over because the dominant vocal Jewish leadership of America won’t stand for it.”[lv]

Fabricating “anti-Semitism” in Iraq
A number of people report that Zionist agents worked to cause Jews in various parts of the world to flee to Israel. Author and former CIA operative Wilbur Crane Eveland reports:

“In an attempt to portray the Iraqis as anti-American and to terrorize the Jews, the Zionists planted bombs in the U.S. Information Service library and in the synagogues. Soon leaflets began to appear urging Jews to flee to Israel… most of the world believed reports that Arab terrorism had motivated the flight of the Iraqi Jews whom the Zionists had ‘rescued’ really just in order to increase Israel’s Jewish population.”[lvi]

Similarly, Naeim Giladi, a Jewish-Iraqi author who later lived in Israel and the U.S., writes:

“Jews from Islamic lands did not emigrate willingly to Israel; that, to force them to leave, Jews killed Jews; and that, to buy time to confiscate ever more Arab lands, Jews on numerous occasions rejected genuine peace initiatives from their Arab neighbors. I write about what the first prime minister of Israel called ‘cruel Zionism.’ I write about it because I was part of it.”[lvii]

The modern Israel Lobby is born
The immediate precursor to today’s lobby began in the early 1940s under the leadership of Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver, originally from Lithuania. He created the American Zionist Emergency Council (AZEC), which by 1943 had acquired a budget of half a million dollars at a time when a nickel bought a loaf of bread.

In addition to this money, Zionists had become influential in creating the United Jewish Appeal in 1939[lviii], giving them access to the organization’s gargantuan financial resources: $14 million in 1941, $150 million by 1948.[lix]

With their extraordinary funding, AZEC embarked on a campaign to target every sector of American society. In the words of AZEC organizer Sy Kenen, they launched “a political and public relations offensive to capture the support of Congressmen, clergy, editors, professors, business and labor.”[lx] [lxi]

AZEC instructed activists to “make direct contact with your local Congressman or Senator” and to go after union members, wives and parents of servicemen, Jewish war veterans. They were provided with form letters to use and schedules of anti-zionist lecture tours to oppose and disrupt.

When Silver disliked a British move in 1945 that would be harmful to Zionists, AZEC booked Madison Square Garden, ordered advertisements, and mailed 250,000 announcements – the first day. By the second day they had organized demonstrations in 30 cities, a letter-writing campaign, and convinced 27 U.S. Senators to give speeches.[lxii]

Zionist action groups were organized at the grassroots level with more than 400 local committees under 76 state and regional branches. Books, articles and academic studies were funded by AZEC; millions of pamphlets were distributed. There were massive petition and letter writing campaigns. They targeted college presidents and deans and managed to get more than 150 to sign one of their petitions.[lxiii]

As Rabbi Elmer Berger describes in his memoirs, there was a “ubiquitous propaganda campaign reaching just about every point of political leverage in the country.”[lxiv]

In its 48th Annual Report the Zionist Organization of America bragged of the “immensity of our operations and their diversity. We reach into every department of American life…”[lxv]

Berger and other anti-Zionist Jewish Americans tried to organize against “the deception and cynicism with which the Zionist machine operated,” but failed to obtain anywhere near their level of funding. Among other things, people were afraid of “the savagery of personal attacks” anti-Zionists endured.[lxvi]

When Berger and a colleague from the anti-Zionist American Council for Judaism opposed a Zionist resolution in Congress, Emanuel Celler, a New York Democrat who was to serve in Congress for almost 50 years, told them: “They ought to take you b…s out and shoot you.”

Jacob Javits, another well-known Congressman, this one a Republican, told Zionist women: “We’ll fight to death and make a Jewish State in Palestine if it’s the last thing that we do.”[lxvii]

When Jewish schools didn’t sufficiently promote the Zionist cause, Zionists would infiltrate their boards of directors. When this didn’t work, they would start their own pro-Zionist schools.[lxviii]

In 1943-44 the ZOA distributed over a million leaflets and pamphlets to public libraries, chaplains, community centers, educators, ministers, writers and “others who might further the Zionist cause.”[lxix]

Zionist monthly sales of books totaled between 3,000 and 4,000 throughout 1944-45. Books by non-Jewish authors were subsidized by the Zionists and promoted jointly with commercial publishers, some making the nation’s best seller lists.[lxx]

Christian support is actively pushed
Silver and other Zionists played a significant role in creating Christian support for Zionism. Secret Zionist funds, eventually reaching $150,000 in 1946, were used to revive an elitest Protestant group, the American Palestine Committee. Silver’s headquarters issued a directive:

“In every community an American Christian Palestine Committee must be immediate organized.”

AZEC formed another group among clergymen, the Christian Council on Palestine.

An internal AZEC memo stated that the aim of both groups was to “crystallize the sympathy of Christian America for our cause.”

By the end of the World War II the Christian Council on Palestine had grown to 3,000 members and the American Palestine Committee boasted a membership of 6,500 public figures, “including senators, congressmen, cabinet members, governors, state officers, mayors, jurists, clergymen, educators, writers, publishing, civic and industrial leaders.”[lxxi]

Historian Richard Stevens points out that Christian support was largely gained by exploiting their wish to help people in need. The Zionists proclaimed “the tragic plight of refugees fleeing from persecution and finding no home,” thus linking the refugee problem with Palestine as allegedly the only solution.

Steven explains:

“The reason for this was clear. For while many Americans might not support the creation of a Jewish state, traditional American humanitarianism could be exploited in favor of the Zionist cause through the refugee problems.”[lxxii]

Few if any of these Christian supporters had any idea of the nature of Zionism and that the creation of the Jewish state would entail a massive expulsion of hundreds of thousands of the non-Jews who made up the large majority of Palestine’s population, creating a new and much longer lasting refugee problem.

Nor did they learn that during and after Israel’s founding 1947-49 war, Zionist forces attacked a number of Christian sites. Author Donald Neff reports:

“…after the capture by Jewish forces of Jaffa on May 13, 1948, two days before Israel’s birth, there was desecration of Christian churches. Father Deleque, a Catholic priest, reported:

“‘Jewish soldiers broke down the doors of my church and robbed many precious and sacred objects. Then they threw the statues of Christ down into a nearby garden.’ He added that Jewish leaders had reassured that religious buildings would be respected, ‘but their deeds do not correspond to their words.’

“On May 31, 1948, a group of Christian leaders comprising the Christian Union of Palestine publicly complained that Jewish forces had used 10 Christian churches and humanitarian institutions in Jerusalem as military bases and otherwise desecrated them. They added that a total of 14 churches had suffered shell damage, which killed three priests and made casualties of more than 100 women and children.

“The group’s statement said Arab forces had abided by their promise to respect Christian institutions, but that the Jews had forcefully occupied Christian structures and been indiscriminate in shelling churches.

“It said, among other charges, that ‘many children were killed or wounded’ by Jewish shells on the Convent of Orthodox Copts on May 19, 23 and 24; that eight refugees were killed and about 120 wounded at the Orthodox Armenian Convent at some unstated date; and that Father Pierre Somi, secretary to the Bishop, had been killed and two wounded at the Orthodox Syrian Church of St. Mark on May 16.”[lxxiii]

After Zionist soldiers invaded and looted a convent in Tiberias, the U.S. Consulate sent a bitter dispatch back to the State Department complaining of “the Jewish attitude in Jerusalem towards Christian institutions.’”[lxxiv] [lxxv]

State Department & Pentagon opposition

State Department and Pentagon analysts consistently opposed Zionism, considering it deeply harmful to US interests and counter to fundamental American principles. The view of American career Foreign Service Officer Evan M. Wilson, who had served as Minister-Consul General in Jerusalem, was typical:

“As my thinking on the substance of the Palestine question evolved, especially following a visit that I paid to Palestine in 1946, I came to the conclusion that for our government to advocate the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine against the will of the majority of the inhabitants of that country (the Arabs) would be a mistake that would have an adverse effect upon world peace and upon U.S. interests.”[lxxvi]

Loy Henderson, director of the Office of Near Eastern and African Affairs, was one of a many career American diplomats who frequently wrote of this. In a memo to Secretary of State James Byrnes after World War II, Henderson stated:

“….support by the Government of the United States of a policy favoring the settling up of a Jewish State in Palestine would be contrary to the wishes of a large majority of the local inhabitants with respect to their form of government. Furthermore, it would have a strongly adverse effect upon American interests throughout the Near and Middle East….

He went on to emphasize:

“At the present time the United States has a moral prestige in the Near and Middle East unequaled by that of any other great power. We would lose that prestige and would be likely for many years to be considered as a betrayer of the high principles which we ourselves have enunciated during the period of the war.”

When Zionists began a campaign to push a partition plan through the UN, in which 55 percent of Palestine would be given to a Jewish state, even though Jews represented only 30 percent of the inhabitants and owned only about 6 percent of the land[lxxvii], Henderson strenuously recommended against supporting their proposal.

He stated that such a partition would have to be implemented by force and emphasized that it was “not based on any principle.” He went on to write:

“…[partition] would guarantee that the Palestine problem would be permanent and still more complicated in the future….[proposals for partition] are in definite contravention to various principles laid down in the [UN] Charter as well as to principles on which American concepts of Government are based. These proposals, for instance, ignore such principles as self-determination and majority rule. They recognize the principle of a theocratic racial state and even go so far in several instances as to discriminate on grounds of religion and race…”[lxxviii]

Henderson noted that this was a fundamental violation of American principles, stating:

“We have hitherto always held that in our foreign relations American citizens, regardless of race or religion, are entitled to uniform treatment.” [lxxix]

On Nov 24th Loy Henderson circulated yet another anti-partition memorandum:

“I feel it again to be my duty to point out that it seems to me and all the members of my Office acquainted with the Middle East that the policy which we are following in New York at the present time is contrary to the interests of the United States and will eventually involve us in international difficulties of so grave a character that the reaction throughout the world, as well as in this country, will be very strong…”[lxxx]

Zionists attacked Henderson virulently, calling him “anti-Semitic,” demanding his resignation, and threatening his family. They tried to pressure the State Department to, as one analyst described it,

“…play with him the historic game of musical chairs” in which officials who recommended Middle East policies “consistent with the nation’s interests were transferred to theatres of diplomatic activity where the Middle East was not an issue.”[lxxxi]

In 1948 Truman sent Henderson to the slopes of the Himalayas, as Ambassador to Nepal. (In recent years, virtually every State Department country desk has typically been directed by a Zionist.)

Henderson was far from alone in making his recommendations. He emphasized that his views were not only those of the entire Near East Division but were shared by “nearly every member of the Foreign Service or of the Department who has worked to any appreciable extent on Near Eastern problems.”[lxxxii]

He wasn’t exaggerating. Official after official and agency after agency opposed Zionism.

In 1947 the CIA’s “Review of the World Situation as It Relates to the Security of the United States” reported that Zionist leadership, “exploiting widespread humanitarian sympathy” with Jews, was pursuing objectives that would endanger both Jews and “the strategic interests of the Western powers in the Near and Middle East.”[lxxxiii]

George F. Kennan, the State Department’s Director of Policy Planning, issued a top secret document entitled “Report by the Policy Planning Staff on Position of the United States with Respect to Palestine” on January 19, 1947 that outlined the enormous damage done to the US by the partition plan. He cautioned that “important U.S. oil concessions and air base rights” could be lost through US support for partition and warned that the USSR stood to gain by the partition plan.

Kennan pointed out that because of Zionist-induced sponsorship of partition:

“U.S. prestige in the Muslim world has suffered a severe blow and US strategic interests in the Mediterranean and Near East have been seriously prejudiced. Our vital interests in those areas will continue to be adversely affected to the extent that we continue to support partition….” [lxxxiv]

Henry F. Grady, who has been called “America’s top diplomatic soldier for a critical period of the Cold War” and who headed up a 1946 commission to try to come up with a solution for Palestine, later wrote about the power of the Zionist lobby in countering their efforts:

“I have had a good deal of experience with lobbies but this group started where those of my experienced had ended….. I have headed a number of government missions but in no other have I ever experienced so much disloyalty”…… “in the United States, since there is no political force to counterbalance Zionism, its campaigns are apt to be decisive.”[lxxxv]

Grady concluded that without Zionist pressure, the U.S. would not have had “the ill-will with the Arab states, which are of such strategic importance in our ‘cold war’ with the soviets.[lxxxvi]

Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson was another who strenuously opposed what he felt was a potentially disastrous Zionist agenda. Acheson biographer Robert Beisner writes that Acheson’s sympathies “were with Marshall and the Department professionals” and reports that Acheson “worried that the West would pay a high price for Israel.” Author John Mulhall reports Acheson’s strong opinion:

“…to transform [Palestine] into a Jewish State capable of receiving a million or more immigrants would vastly exacerbate the political problem and imperil not only American but all Western interests in the Near East.”[lxxxvii]

Secretary of Defense James Forrestal also tried, unsuccessfully, to oppose the Zionists. He was outraged that Truman’s Mideast policy was based on what he called “squalid political purposes,” asserting that “United States policy should be based on United States national interests and not on domestic political considerations.”[lxxxviii]

Forrestal represented the general Pentagon view when he said “no group in this country should be permitted to influence our policy to the point where it could endanger our national security.”

When Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr., a young Congressman, warned that the democratic party would lose if an anti-partition plan were proposed, Forrestal responded: “I think it is about time that somebody should pay some consideration to whether we might not lose the United States.”[lxxxix]

Zionists attacked Forrestal venemously and Berger recalls that he became “the favorite whipping boy of the Zionist-dominated press.” Zionist Walter Winchell and pro-Soviet Drew Pearson (Forrestal also opposed Stalin) launched vicious personal attacks.[xc] At odds with Truman on a number of issues, in 1949 Forrestal was hospitalized in the National Naval Medical Center with a diagnosis of severe depression, where it was reported that he committed suicide. His brother, a businessman, did not believe this cause of death.[xci]

The head of the State Department’s Division of Near Eastern Affairs, Gordon P. Merriam, was yet another high level official who warned against the partition plan:

“U.S. support for partition of Palestine as a solution to that problem can be justified only on the basis of Arab and Jewish consent. Otherwise we should violate the principle of self-determination which has been written into the Atlantic Charter, the declaration of the United Nations, and the United Nations Charter–a principle that is deeply embedded in our foreign policy. Even a United Nations determination in favor of partition would be, in the absence of such consent, a stultification and violation of UN’s own charter.”[xcii]

Merriam added that without consent, “bloodshed and chaos” would follow, a sadly accurate prediction.

A report by the National Security Council warned that the Palestine turmoil was acutely endangering the security of the United States. A CIA report stressed the strategic importance of the Middle East and its oil resources.[xciii]

Kermit Roosevelt, Teddy Roosevelt’s nephew and a legendary intelligence agent, was another who was deeply disturbed by events, noting:

“The process by which Zionist Jews have been able to promote American support for the partition of Palesine demonstrates the vital need of a foreign policy based on national rather than partisan interests… Only when the national interests of the United States, in their highest terms, take precedence over all other considerations, can a logical, farseeing foreign policy be evolved. No American political leader has the right to compromise American interests to gain partisan votes…”[xciv]

He went on:

“The present course of world crisis will increasingly force upon Americans the realization that their national interests and those of the proposed Jewish state in Palestine are going to conflict. It is to be hoped that American Zionists and non-Zionists alike will come to grips with the realities of the problem.”

When Eleanor Roosevelt, who was heavily influenced by Zionists[xcv], and others on an the “American Association for the United Nations” decided to allot funds for pro-partition ads in the New York Times, Kermit’s wife tried to prevent the disbursement. As usual when one tried to oppose Zionists, she failed.[xcvi]

An internal State Department memorandum accurately predicted beforehand what actually came to pass:

“…the Jews will be the actual aggressors against the Arabs. However, the Jews will claim that they are merely defending the boundaries of a state which were traced by the UN…In the event of such Arab outside aid the Jews will come running to the Security Council with the claim that their state is the object of armed aggression and will use every means to obscure the fact that it is their own armed aggression against the Arabs inside which is the cause of Arab counter-attack.”[xcvii]

American Vice Consul William J. Porter, predicted, with deadly accuracy, that there would be no Arab State in Palestine.[xcviii]

Pro-Israel agenda dominates US policies
In 1949 US Consul Burdett reported that Israeli officials were openly bragging about the power of the Jewish American community to influence US policy. He reported: “Israel eventually intends to obtain all of Palestine….”[xcix]

American Ambassador Lewis W. Douglas tried to convince Truman not to accede to Zionist wishes, arguing: “…no public office, however great its prestige, is worth gambling with the vital interests of the US.”[c]

Opposing such analysts was Truman’s political advisor, Clark Clifford, who believed that the Jewish vote and contributions were essential to winning the upcoming presidential election. Truman’s opponent, Dewey, took similar stands for similar reasons.

Truman’s Secretary of State George Marshall, the renowned World War II General and author of the Marshall Plan, was furious to see electoral considerations taking precedence over policies that were in the national interest. He condemned what he called a “transparent dodge to win a few votes,” which would cause “[t]he great dignity of the office of President [to be] be seriously diminished.”

Marshall wrote that the counsel offered by Clifford “was based on domestic political considerations, while the problem which confronted us was international. I said bluntly that if the President were to follow Mr. Clifford’s advice and if in the elections I were to vote, I would vote against the President…” (63)

Truman wrote in his memoirs: “I do not think I ever had as much pressure and propaganda aimed at the White House as I had in this instance.” There were now about a million dues-paying Zionists in the U.S.[ci]

Then, as now, in addition to unending pressure there was financial compensation, Truman reportedly receiving a suitcase full of money from Zionists while on his train campaign around the country.[cii]

Personal influences

One person key in such Zionist financial connections to Truman was Abraham Feinberg, a wealthy businessman who was later to play a similar role with Kennedy and Johnson. While many Americans at the time and since have been aware of Truman’s come-from-behind win over Dewey, few people know about the critical role of Feinberg and the Zionist lobby in financing Truman’s victory.

An individual inside the US government who worked to influence policy was David K. Niles, executive assistant first to FDR and then to Truman. Niles, according to author Alfred Lilienthal, was “a member of a select group of confidential advisers with an often-quoted passion for anonymity. Niles… though occasionally publicized as Mr. Truman’s Mystery Man, remained totally unknown to the public.”[ciii] Behind the scenes Niles was regularly briefed by the head of the Washington Office of the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA).

When it was discovered that top secret information was being passed on to the Israeli government, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Omar Bradley told Truman he would have to choose between Bradley and Niles. Not long after, Niles resigned and went on a visit to Israel.[civ]

Another who helped influence Truman was his old Kansas City friend and business partner, Eddie Jacobson, active in B’nai B’rith and “a passionate believer in Jewish nationalism,” who was able to procure Zionist access to the President at key times. [cv] Truman credited Jacobson with making a contribution of “decisive importance.”[cvi]

Evan M Wilson, a longtime diplomat who had been U.S. Consul General in Jerusalem, later wrote that Truman had been largely motivated by “domestic political considerations.”[cvii] At least one of Truman’s key policy speeches had been drafted primarily by the Washington representative of the Jewish Agency.[cviii]

Acting Secretary of State James E. Webb in a dispatch to Secretary of State Acheson noted the obvious:

“Past record suggests Israel has had more influence with US than has US with Israel.”[cix]

Pushing through the UN Partition Plan

Just as Zionists had succeeded in pushing U.S. support of the partition strategy over the objections of US experts, they managed to push it through the UN using an orchestrated campaign of bribes and threats.

Robert Nathan, who had worked for the government and was particularly active in the Jewish Agency, wrote afterward, “We used any tools at hand,” such as telling certain delegations that the Zionists would use their influence to block economic aid to any countries that did not vote the right way.[cx] Another Zionist proudly described their activities:

“Every clue was meticulously checked and pursued. Not the smallest or the remotest of nations, but was contacted and wooed. Nothing was left to chance.”[cxi]

Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, along with ten senators and Clark Clifford, threatened the Philippines (seven bills were pending on the Philippines in Congress). David Niles organized similar pressure on Liberia; Harvey Firestone pressured Liberia. Bernard Baruch told France they would lose U.S. aid if they voted against partition. Latin American delegates were told that the Pan-American highway construction project would be more likely if they voted yes. Delegates’ wives received mink coats (the wife of the Cuban delegate returned hers); Costa Rica’s President Jose Figueres reportedly received a blank checkbook. Haiti was promised economic aid if it would change its original vote opposing partition.[cxii]

Before the vote the Philippine delegate had given a passionate speech against partition, defending the inviolable “primordial rights of a people to determine their political future and to preserve the territorial integrity of their native land…” He went on to say that he could not believe that the General Assembly would sanction a move that would place the world “back on the road to the dangerous principles of racial exclusiveness and to the archaic documents of theocratic governments.”[cxiii]

Twenty-four hours later, after intense Zionist pressure, the delegate was forced to vote in favor of partition.

Even the U.S. delegation to the U.N. was so outraged at supporting partition that the State Department director of U.N. affairs was sent to New York to “prevent the U.S. delegation from resigning en masse.”[cxiv]

33 massacres later, Israel comes into existence
The passing of the partition resolution in November 1947 trigged the violence that State Department and Pentagon analysts had predicted and for which Zionists had been preparing. There were at least 33 massacres of Palestinian villages,[cxv] half of them before a single Arab army joined the conflict. Zionist forces were better equipped and had more men under arms than their opponents[cxvi] and by the end of Israel’s “War of Independence” over 750,000 Palestinian men, women, and children were ruthlessly expelled. Zionists had succeeded in the first half of their goal: Israel, the self-described Jewish State, had come into existence.[cxvii]

Descriptions of the massacres, by both Palestinians and Israelis, are nightmarish. An Israeli eyewitness reported that at the village of al-Dawayima:

“The children they killed by breaking their heads with sticks. There was not a house without dead….One soldier boasted that he had raped a woman and then shot her.”[cxviii]

One woman testified that a man shot her nine-month-pregnant sister and then cut her stomach open with a butcher knife.[cxix]

Swiss Red Cross representative Jacques de Reynier was one of the first to arrive at the massacre of the small, neutral Palestinian village, Deir Yassin in April 1948 (before a single Arab army had joined the conflict). Author George Ball (who had been undersecretary of state under Johnson and Kennedy, and ambassador to the United Nations) writes that the representative “found 150 bodies thrown into a cistern and another 40 to 50 at one side. He counted in all 254 dead, including 145 women, of whom 35 were pregnant.”[cxx]

The attackers reportedly lined up families – men, women, grandparents and children, even infants – and shot them.

An eyewitness and future colonel in the Israeli military later wrote of the Irgun and Stern members:

“They didn’t know how to fight, but as murderers they were pretty good.”[cxxi]

Reynier wrote in his diary that when he arrived members of the Zionist underground militia known as the Irgun,[cxxii] were still entering houses with guns and knives. He saw one young Jewish woman carrying a blood-covered dagger, saw another stab an old couple at the doorway of their home. Reynier wrote that the scene reminded him of S.S. troops he had seen in Athens.

Richard Catling, British assistant inspector general for the criminal division, reported:

“There is… no doubt that many sexual atrocities were committed by the attacking Jews. Many young school girls were raped and later slaughtered. Old women were also molested.”[cxxiii]

The attack was perpetrated by two Zionist militias (whose heads, Menachem Begin and Ytzakh Shamir, were later to become Prime Ministers of Israel) and was coordinated with the main Zionist forces, whose elite unit participated in part of the operation.[cxxiv]

Menachem Begin, head of the Irgun who later became Prime Minister of Israel, sent the following message to his troops about their victory at Deir Yassin:

“Accept my congratulations on this splendid act of conquest. Convey my regards to all the commanders and soldiers. We shake your hands. We are all proud of the excellent leadership and the fighting spirit in this great attack. We stand to attention in memory of the slain. We lovingly shake the hands of the wounded. Tell the soldiers: you have made history in Israel with your attack and your conquest. Continue thus until victory. As in Deir Yassin, so everywhere, we will attack and smite the enemy. God, God, Thou has chosen us for conquest.”[cxxv]

Approximately six months later, Begin (who had also publicly taken credit for a number of other terrorist acts, including blowing up the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, which had killed 91 people) came on a tour of America. The tour’s sponsors included such prominent Americans as playwright Ben Hecht, a fervent Zionist who applauded Irgun violence[cxxvi], and eventually included 11 Senators, 12 governors, 70 Congressmen, 17 Justices, and numerous other public officials.

As a member of the House Foreign Affairs Committee remarked:

“Put any petition with the name Jew on it before a candidate in an election year, and you can get anyone to sign anything.”

The State Department, fully aware of his violent activities in Palestine, tried to reject Begin’s visa but was overruled by Truman.[cxxvii]

Begin later proudly admitted his terrorism in an interview for American television. When the interviewer asked him, “How does it feel, in the light of all that’s going on, to be the father of terrorism in the Middle East?” Begin proclaimed, “In the Middle East? In all the world!”[cxxviii]

Terrorists set up US front groups
The Irgun had been operating in the U.S. since the 1930s. As one of their leaders later wrote, “It was in Europe of those days that the idea of transferring the focal point of our activity to the United States was born, and it was from there that we left on a mission that lasted far longer than originally planned…”[cxxix]

The “we” referred to a small group known as the Irgun Delegation that operated in the U.S. from the late 1930s until 1948 and that formed a half dozen front organizations for what they themselves called “a military operation” and that largely consisted of propaganda aimed at the American public.[cxxx]

Two of the leaders were Yitshaq Ben-Ami (father of the founder of today’s J-Street) and “Peter Bergson,” the pseudonym of the senior Irgun officer working outside Palestine, Hillel Kook. The group is often called the Bergson Group. [cxxxi] [cxxxii]

Among their numerous activities they lobbied Congress and the White House, organized a march on Washington, D.C. of 500 Rabbis, placed full-page ads in newspapers around the U.S., and produced a pageant “We Will Never Die!” celebrating the Jewish contribution to Western civilization, written by Ben Hecht, directed by Moss Hart, featuring music by Kurt Weil, and starring Edward G. Robinson.

Forty thousand attended its New York performances. It then went on to play in most of America’s largest cities.[cxxxiii]

While the various organizations created by the Irgun Delegation frequently pushed for rescuing European Jews, one of the major demands was for the creation of a “Jewish Army of Stateless and Palestinian Jews.” This was a goal that Revisionist Zionists had sought even before the Nazi holocaust had begun and is believed to have had a mixed agenda. Author William Rubinstein writes:

“It is rather difficult to believe that Bergson’s implausible proposal did not have far more to do with creating the nucleus of a Jewish Palestinian force, to be used against the British and the Arabs, than with saving Europe’s Jews from the Nazis.”[cxxxiv]

Critics point out that the delegation did not manage to rescue any Jews during the Nazi holocaust.[cxxxv]

Bergson-Kook’s uncle was Rabbi Avraham Yitzhak Kook, originally from Eastern Europe, who became the “Chief Rabbi of Israel” even before it became a state, worked toward the Balfour Declaration in Britain, and most importantly, devised an ideology that merged a kabalistic version of religious Judaism (the Cabbala holds that every non-Jew is an embodiment of Satan) with political Zionism, founding an extremist religious Zionism that continues today.[cxxxvi]

Rabbi Kook, who achieved saintly status among his followers in Israel and the U.S., stated:

“The difference between a Jewish soul and souls of non-Jews… is greater and deeper than the difference between a human soul and the souls of cattle.”[cxxxvii]

In addition to spanning the Jewish religious-secular continuum, the Irgun Delegation spanned the political spectrum, its historian Judith Baumel writing that it “evinced many of the unique characteristics of Eastern European protofascism” while also forming partnerships with communists and Jews who belonged to left-wing American groups.[cxxxviii]

All of this was hidden from view, however, as the “Bergson Boys” aimed for the American man in the street, using tantalizing slogans, illustrated advertisements, and “seductive curiosity-whetting gimmicks.” As author Baumel notes, the Irgun Delegation’s primary triumph was to “understood the power of Madison Avenue.”[cxxxix]

Another terrorist front group, the Political Action Committee for Palestine, was formed by Rabbi Baruch Korf, who indirectly admitted that the financing of terrorism was among its activities. In 1948 Korf published a large advertisement in the New York Post calling a State Department policy against enforcing partition “pure and simple anti-Semitism… plain everyday anti-Semitism, incorporated in the hearts and minds of those who govern free America.”[cxl]

Author Grant Smith, filing numerous Freedom of Information Requests, has uncovered information on numerous such illegal Zionist activities. The Truman administration, with Feinberg as a major campaign donor, failed to act on CIA reports about Feinberg and Zionist illicit arms trafficking from the US. [cxli]

Among these was the “Sonnenberg Institute,” named after its founder, Rudolf G. Sonneborn, scion of a wealthy German-Jewish family from Baltimore. [cxlii]

Sonnenberg had first met Zionist leader and future Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion in 1919 when Sonneborn, at the behest of family friend Supreme Court Justice Brandeis, had traveled to the Versailles peace conference as secretary of a Zionist delegation and afterward gone on a tour of Palestine.[cxliii]

In 1945 Sonnenberg and Ben Gurion hosted a meeting of 17 well-connected guests at Sonnenberg’s Manhattan penthouse. They came from Los Angeles, Toronto, Miami, Birmingham, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Columbus, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Newark, New Haven and New York. One was a rabbi, five were lawyers, the others were highly successful businessmen.

The purpose, Ben Gurion explained, was to create a secret underground organization that would be the American arm of the Zionist paramilitary in Palestine, the Haganah. The organization was to have a representative in at least 35-40 industry groups, and in one month alone there were meetings in Memphis, Ohio, New Jersey, Cedar Rapids, Iowa City, Baton Rouge, Dallas, Washington DC, and 40 more were scheduled. [cxliv]

The purpose was to raise money and support “for purposes which could not be publicized or even fully disclosed.” A variety of front groups were created for military arms and equipment smuggling of everything from machine guns to B-17s.[cxlv]

US authorities tried to stop what were not only illegal but also extremely damaging activities. In 1948 the Director of Central Intelligence, Rear Admiral R.H. Hillenkoetter, filed a top-secret report with the Secretary of Defense about the Zionist arms trafficking. He warned:

“U.S. National security is unfavorably affected by these developments and it could be seriously jeopardized by continued illicit traffic in the ‘implements of war.’”[cxlvi]

Grant Smith, author of five books on Lobby activities, reports that under Truman “the role of Feinberg and Haganah operative groups active in arms trafficking within the US, like the terrorist charges, would only be lightly investigated and seldom prosecuted.”[cxlvii]

Palestinian refugees
By 1949 as a result of Israel’s “War of Independence” and its campaign to cleanse the land of as many non-Jews as possible,[cxlviii] there were hundreds of thousands of Palestinian refugees. U.S. Representative in Israel McDonald sent an urgent report to Truman:

“Arab refugee tragedy is rapidly reaching catastrophic proportions and should be treated as a disaster. …..Of approximately 400,000 refugees approaching winter with cold heavy rains will, it is estimated, kill more than 100,000 old men, women and children who are shelterless and have little or no food.”[cxlix]

The number of refugees continued to grow, reaching at least three-quarters of a million. U.S. Diplomats in Cairo and Amman described a disastrous situation in which the “almost nonexistent resources” of Arab countries inundated by desperate, starving Palestinian refugees were stretched almost to the breaking point.

The State Department reported that during the last nine months of 1948 Arab states had donated $11 million to refugee aid, stating, “This sum, in light of the very slender budgets of most of these governments, is relatively enormous.”[cl]

During this time, the report noted, “…the total direct relief offered…by the Israeli government to date consists of 500 cases of oranges.”[cli]

Meanwhile, Israel had acquired properties worth at least $480 million in 1947 dollars; one estimate put the figure at $35 billion in 1990 dollars.[clii]

Journalist and academic Anders Strindberg reports:

“In the process of ‘Judaizing’ Palestine, numerous convents, hospices, seminaries, and churches were either destroyed or cleared of their Christian owners and custodians. In one of the most spectacular attacks on a Christian target, on May 17, 1948, the Armenian Orthodox Patriarchate was shelled with about 100 mortar rounds—launched by Zionist forces from the already occupied monastery of the Benedictine Fathers on Mount Zion.

“The bombardment also damaged St. Jacob’s Convent, the Archangel’s Convent, and their appended churches, their two elementary and seminary schools, as well as their libraries, killing eight people and wounding 120.”[cliii]

Truman, whose caving in to Zionist pressures had helped create the disaster, now tried to convince Israel to allow the refugees to return to their homes. His main representative working on this was Mark Ethridge, former publisher of the Louisville Courier Journal.

Ethridge was disgusted at Israel’s refusal, reporting to the State Department:

“What I can see is an abortion of justice and humanity to which I do not want to be midwife…”[cliv]

The State Department finally threatened to withhold $49 million of unallocated funds from an Export-Import Bank loan to Israel if it did not allow at least 200,000 refugees to return. The U.S. coordinator on Palestine refugee Matters George C. McGhee delivered the message to the Israeli ambassador and later described his response:

“The ambassador looked me straight in the eye and said, in essence, that I wouldn’t get by with this move, that he would stop it… Within an hour of my return to my office I received a message from the White House that the President wished to dissociated himself from any withholding of the Ex-Im Bank loan.”[clv]

Edwin Wright, a State Department Middle East specialist from 1945-47, was the subject of an oral history interview many years later for the Truman Library. As he stated when this was completed:

“The material I gave Professor McKinzie was of a very controversial nature–one almost taboo in U.S. circles, inasmuch as I accused the Zionists of using political pressures and even deceit in order to get the U.S. involved in a policy of supporting a Zionist theocratic, ethnically exclusive and ambitious Jewish State. I, and my associates in the State Department, felt this was contrary to U.S. interests and we were overruled by President Truman.”[clvi]

Zionist influence in the media

As historian Richard Stevens notes, Zionists early on learned to exploit the essential nature of the American political system: that policies can be made and un-made through force of public opinion and pressure. Procuring influence in the media, both paid and unpaid, has been a key component of their success.[clvii]

From early on, the Zionist narrative largely dominated news coverage of the region. A study of four leading newspapers’ 1917 coverage showed that editorial opinion almost universally favored the Zionist position. Author Kathleen Christison notes that “editorials and news stories alike applauded Jewish enterprise, heralding a Jewish return to Palestine as ‘glorious news’.” Other studies showed the same situation for the 1920s.

Christison writes:

“The relatively heavy press coverage is an indicator of the extent of Zionist influence even in this early period. One scholar has estimated that, as of the mid-1920s, approximately half of all New York Times articles were placed by press agents, suggesting that U.S. Zionist organizations may have placed many of the articles on Zionism’s Palestine endeavors.”[clviii]

At one point when the State Department was trying to convince Israel to allow Palestinian refugees to return, Secretary of State Marshall wrote, “The leaders of Israel would make a grave miscalculation if they thought callous treatment of this tragic issue could pass unnoted by world opinion.”[clix]

Marshall underestimated the ability of Zionists to minimize the amount of information on this from reaching Americans. A State Department study in March 1949 found the American public was “unaware of the Palestine refugee problem, since it has not been hammered away at by the press or radio.”[clx]

As author Alfred Lilienthal explained in 1953:

“The capture of the American press by Jewish nationalism was, in fact, incredibly complete. Magazines as well as newspapers, in news stories as well as editorial columns, gave primarily the Zionist views of events before, during, and after partition.”[clxi]

When the Saturday Evening Post published an article by Milton Mayer that criticized Jewish nationalism (and carried two other articles giving opposing views), Zionists organized what was probably the worst attack on the Post in its long history.

The magazine was inundated with vitriolic mail, subscriptions cancelled, and advertising withdrawn. The Post learned its lesson, later refusing to publish an article that would have again exposed it to such an onslaught, even though the editor acknowledged that the rejected piece was a “good and eloquent article.”[clxii]

This was typical in a campaign in which Zionists exploited sympathy for victimized Jews, and when this did not sufficiently skew reporting about Palestine, they used financial pressure. Lilienthal writes:

“If ‘voluntary’ compliance was not ‘understanding’ enough, there was always the matter of Jewish advertising and circulation. The threat of economic recriminations from Jewish advertisers, combined with the fact that the fatal label of ‘Anti-Semite’ would be pinned on any editor stepping out of line, assured fullest press cooperation.”[clxiii]

Author Christison records that from the moment partition was voted by the UN, “the press played a critical role in building a framework for thinking that would endure for decades.” She writes that shortly before May 15, 1948, the scheduled beginning of the Jewish State, a total of 24 U.S., British, and Australian reporters converged on Palestine.

“Virtually all reporting was from the Jewish perspective. The journals the Nation and the New Republic both showed what one scholar calls ‘an overt emotional partiality’ toward the Jews. No item published in either journal was sympathetic to the Arabs, and no correspondent was stationed in Arab areas of Palestine, although some reporters lived with, and sometimes fought alongside, Jewish settlers.”[clxiv]

Bookstores were inundated with books espousing the Zionist point of view to enthusiastic press reviews. Conversely, the few books published that dared to provide a different perspective were given scathing reviews, when they were reviewed at all.[clxv]

When Professor Millar Burrows of the Yale School of Divinity, a distinguished scholar and archaeologist, wrote Palestine Is Our Business, the American Zionist Council distributed a publication labeling his book “an anti-Semitic opus.”

In fact, Professor Burrows’ life history showed the opposite. He had been one of the organizers and Vice-President of the National Committee to Combat Anti-Semitism and had long been active in the interfaith movement in New Haven.[clxvi]

When the eminent dean of Barnard College, Virginia Gildersleeve, a highly distinguished personage with impeccable credentials as a humanitarian, wrote that Palestinian refugees should be allowed to return to their homes, a campaign was begun against her as a Christian “anti-Semite.”[clxvii]

Gildersleeve, who had been instrumental in drafting the Preamble to the U.N. Charter and had taken a leading role in creating the U.N. Human Rights Commission, later devoted herself to working for human rights in the Middle East. She testified before Congressional committees and lobbied President Truman, to no avail. In her memoir, she attributed such failures to “the Zionist control of the media of communication.”[clxviii]

Dorothy Thompson, Katharine Hepburn, & Lauren Bacall
America’s most famous female journalist of the time also attempted valiantly, but unsuccessfully, to tell Americans about Palestinian refugees.

According to the Britannica encyclopedia, Dorothy Thompson was one of the most famous female journalists of the 20th Century.

Her column was in newspapers all over the country, her radio program listened to by tens of millions of Americans, she had been married to one of America’s most famous novelists, graced the cover of Time Magazine, been profiled by America’s top magazines and was so well-known that “Woman of the Year,” a Hollywood movie featuring Kathryn Hepburn and Spencer Tracey and a Broadway play starring Lauren Bacall, were based on Thompson.[clxix]

She had been the first journalist to be expelled by Adolph Hitler and had raised the alarm against the Nazis long ahead of most other journalists. She had originally supported Zionism, but then after the war had visited the region in person. She began to speak about Palestinian refugees, narrated a documentary about their plight[clxx], and condemned Jewish terrorism.

Thompson was viciously attacked in an orchestrated campaign of what she termed “career assassination and character assassination.” She wrote: “It has been boundless, going into my personal life.” She wrote of this organized attack: “…when letter after leter is couched in almost identical phraseology I do not think the authors have been gifted with telepathy.”[clxxi]

She was dropped by the New York Post, whose editor Ted Thackry, and his wife, Dorothy Schiff, were said by other Post editors to be close to the Irgun and Menachem Begin. Begin, the Irgunists, the Stern Gang and other Zionists organizations had what was termed “inordinate access” to the Post’s editorial board.[clxxii]

Her mail was filled with ferocious accusations that she was “anti-Semitic.” One such correspondent told her that her “filthy incitements to porgroms” would not be tolerated by New York’s Jews.[clxxiii]

Before long, her column and radio programs, her speaking engagements, and her fame were all gone. Today, she has largely been erased from history.

In the coming decades other Americans were similarly written out of history, forced out of office, lives and careers destroyed; history distorted, re-written, erased; bigotry promoted, supremacy disguised, facts replaced by fraud.

Very few people know this history. The excellent books that document it are largely out of print, their facts and very existence virtually unknown to the vast majority of Americans, even those who focus on the Middle East. Instead, false theories have been promulgated, mendacious analyses promoted, chosen authors celebrated, others assigned to oblivion.

George Orwell once wrote: “’Who controls the past, controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.’.”[clxxiv]

Perhaps by rediscovering the past, we’ll gain control of the present, and save the future.

#

Alison Weir is President of the Council for the National Interest and Executive Director If Americans Knew. She is available to give presentations on this topic and can be reached at contact@ifamericansknew.orgThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or inform@cnionline.orgThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it . Part Two will be published in the coming months.

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[i] In Israel it is typically called “the Jewish lobby”

[ii] http://israelipalestinian.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=636&print=true

http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/34000.html

[accessed July 21, 2011]

[iii] Herzl’s seminal book The Jewish State is online at:

http://fliiby.com/file/239266/f8rd51benn.html

Herzl devoted all his time to this movement, eventually dying at the age of 44 leaving his family penniless. An article in the Israeli newspaper Ha’aretz reports that his daughter Pauline suffered from emotional problems from youth and eventually died of morphine addiction. His son Hans converted to Christianity in 1924, at which time he was abandoned by the Jewish community and denounced publicly. He committed suicide following his sister’s death. A book about Herzl’s children was written in the 1940s but was suppressed by the World Zionist Organization, which decided to bury Pauline and Hans in Bordeaux, despite their wish to be buried beside their father in Austria, “probably to avoid tarnishing Herzl’s image.”

– Uni, Assaf. “Hans Herzl’s wish comes true – 76 years later.” Ha’aretz, 19.09.06. Online at:

http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/hans-herzl-s-wish-comes-true-76-years-later-1.197621

[iv] The next year there were 900 groups. Perceptions of Palestine, by Kathleen Christison, p. 22.

[Davis, 1 – it was first just called the Zionist Organization; its name officially changed to the WZO in 1960. Most people use the two names interchangeably. http://www.jewishagency.org/JewishAgency/English/Jewish+Education/Compelling+Content/Eye+on+Israel/120/Chapter+One+The+Heralders+of+Zionism.htm%5D

According to its website, today the WZO “consists of the following bodies: The World Zionist Unions, international Zionist federations; and international organizations that define themselves as Zionist, such as WIZO, Hadassah, Bnai-Brith, Maccabi, the International Sephardic Federation, the three streams of world Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform), delegation from the CIS – Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union), the World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS), and more.”

http://www.en.wzo.org.il/home/P102.jsp?arc=109068

[v] Mulhall, John W., CSP. America and the Founding of Israel: An Investigation of the Morality of America’s Role. Los Angeles: Deshon Press, 1995. Pp. 47, 51-52.

[vi] “The Palestine Problem: An Overview” Walid Khalidi, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 21, No. 1 (Autumn, 1991).Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the Institute for Palestine Studies

The best resources on the pre-Israel population are:

Salman Abu-Sitta, Phd. The Atlas of Palestine 1917-1966. London: Palestine Land Society, 2010.

McCarthy, Justin, The Population of Palestine: Population History and Statistics of the Late Ottoman Period and the Mandate, Columbia University Press, New York, 1990. Produced by the British mandatory administration.

Khalidi, Walid, Ed. All that Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1992.

A Survey of Palestine: Prepared in December 1945 and January 1946 for the information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, by the British mandatory Commission, 1946. Reprinted in 1991 by the Institute for Palestine Studies, Washington DC. Two volumes.

Supplement to Survey of Palestine: Notes compiloed for the information of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, June 1947. Reprinted in 1991 by the Institute for Palestine Studies, Washington DC.

[vii] Masalha, Nur. Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of “Transfer in Zionist Political Thought, 1882-1948. Fourth Printing, 2001. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1992.

[viii] Goldberg, JJ. Jewish Power: Inside the American Jewish Establishment. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison Wesley, 1996. P. 97.

[ix] Goldberg 98-99

[x] http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/lazarus.html

[xi] Kolsky, Thomas, Jews Against Zionism: the American Council for Judaism, 1942-1948 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990), p. 24.

In a 1918 reorganization the FAZ renamed itself the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA). Kolsky 26.

[xii] Kolsky, Thomas, Jews Against Zionism: the American Council for Judaism, 1942-1948 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990), p. 24.

[xiii] Kolsky, Thomas, Jews Against Zionism: the American Council for Judaism, 1942-1948 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990), p. 24.

In a 1918 reorganization the FAZ renamed itself the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA). Kolsky 26.

[xiv] Dalin, David G. “At the Summit: Presidents, Presidential Appointments, and Jews,” Maisal, Sandy L. and Forman, Ira N. editors. Jews in American Politics: Essays, Lanham, Md: Roman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2004. P. 32-34. (The appointee was Oscar Straus, whose brothers owned Macy’s Department Store and whom TR later named to his cabinet. Dalin reports a humorous incident that occurred at a dinner years later for Straus and Roosevelt:

“In his remarks, Roosevelt had stated that Straus had been appointed on the basis of merit and ability alone; the fact that he was Jewish had played no part in Roosevelt’s decision to appoint him. A few minutes later, in introducing Straus, [another speaker, the Jewish financier and philothropist Jacob] Schiff, who was a bit deaf and had evidently not heard Roosevelt’s remarks, recounted how Roosevelt had sought his advice as to who would be the most suitable and eminent Jewish leader to appoint to his cabinet.”

[xv] Neff, Donald. Fallen Pillars: U.S. Policy towards Palestine and Israel since 1945. Reprint Edition 2002. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1995. P.8.

Neff, the author of five books on Israel, was Jerusalem Bureau Chief and then a Senior Editor for Time magazine. Pillars, perhaps the best book on the history of the US-Israel relationship, will soon be re-published by the Council for the National Interest. It can be pre-ordered at: http://TheCouncilForTheNationalInterest.org/Pillars.

[xvi] Kolsky, 25.

[xvii] Stevens, Richard P., American Zionism and U.S. Foreign Policy 1942-1947. New York: Pageant Press. Inc. Reprinted by the Institute for Palestine Studies, 1970. P. 20.

[xviii] Neff, 9

[xix] Neff 10.

[xx] Neff 10; John 15; Christison 28.

[xxi] Neff, Pillars, p. 12.

Author Benjamin Ginsberg reports that Brandeis also “played a decisive role in planning Wilson’e economic program, and particularly in formulating the Federal Reserve.” – The Fatal Embrace: Jews and the State, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993, p. 93.

[xxii] Neff 12; John & Hadawi, p. 59-60.

Felix Frankfurter’s work on behalf of Zionism spanned many years. FDR was to appoint him to the Supreme Court in 1939, and even before this time he used his “access to the president to bring Zionist issues to his attention and urge his intercession on behalf of the Zionist cause. –Christison, Kathleen. Perceptions of Palestine. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2000. P. 47

[xxiii] Kolsky 25, 32

[xxiv] http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/50162/Balfour-Declaration

[xxv] Mulhall, p.50. http://www.politicalforum.com/ethnic-religious-conflicts/164679-sultan-abdul-hamid-zionist-colonization-palestine.html

[xxvi] Mulhall p. 66. This was a sadly deft prognosis, writing of Jerusalem in the early 1960s, the American Consul General in Jerusalem found: “I think I can safely make the general comment that in present-day Israel… the Arabs are very much of ‘hewers of wood and drawers of water’” for the dominant Israelis – Jerusalem, Key to Peace, Evan M. Wilson, p. 33.

[xxvii] John, p 68-70: “The British government was advised that ‘previous overtures to American Jewry to support the Allies had received no attention was because the approach had been to the wrong people. It was to the Zionist Jews that the British and French governments should address their parleys.’ Sir Mark Sykes was particularly weighed down by the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement, which had promised that the British would support Arab independence, insisting that it was impossible to offer Palestine to the Jews. He was told that Brandeis had just become a Supreme Court Justice, and that he had President Wilson’s ear. This began the negotiations with the Zionists.

[xxviii] http://www.jweekly.com/article/full/9929/balfour-declaration-author-was-a-secret-jew-says-prof/

[xxix] (March 1, 1935], cited in John 72)

[xxx] Davidson, Lawrence, America’s Palestine: Popular and Official Perceptions from Balfour to Israeli Statehood. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001. 11-12. Citation: Ingrams, Doreen, ed. Palestine Papers, 1917-1922. New York: George Braziller, 1973, 173.

[xxxi] Decision on Palestine, Evan M. Wilson, p. xv.

[xxxii] Deaths and injuries were 364,800:

http://www.taphilo.com/history/war-deaths.shtml [accessed July 21, 20110

[xxxiii] Wilson’s Alien and Sedition acts resulted in the jailing 1,200 American citizens; “Walter C. Matthey of Iowa was sentenced to a year in jail for applauding an anticonscription speech. Walter Heynacher of South Dakota was sentenced to five years in Leavenworth for telling a younger man that ‘it was foolishness to send our boys over there to get killed by the thousands, all for the sake of wall Street.’…Abraham Sugarman of Sibley County, Minnesota, was sentenced to three years in Leavenworth for arguing that the draft was unconstitutional and remaking, ‘This is supposed to be a free country. Like Hell it is.’” – Kauffman, Bill. Ain’t My America: The long, Noble History of Antiwar Conservatism and Middle-American Anti-Imperialism. New York: 2008, Metropolitan books, Henry Holt and Company. Page 74.

The song “Over There” was written by George M. Cohan, who received the Congressional Medal of Honor for it in 1940, when America was about to join another world war:

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/cohan.htm

[xxxiv] Kolsky 12.

[xxxv] While this subterfuge was used in the beginning years, the goal was to create a state, as Felix Frankfurter wrote: “ ‘I need not tell you that the phrase, ‘that Palestine be established as a Jewish Home’ was a phrase of purposeful ambiguity.” [John, p. 118]. In the Zionists’ Memorandum to the Peace Conference they stated that Palestine “shall be placed under such political, administrative and economic conditions as will ensure the establishment therein of the Jewish national home and ultimately render possible the creation of an autonomous Jewish commonwealth. [John, p. 125]

[xxxvi] John, p. 115

[xxxvii] Paul Charles Merkley, Christian Attitudes towards the State of Israel. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2001, p. 6.

Harry Emerson Fosdick – http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/131christians/pastorsandpreachers/fosdick.html

Henry Sloane Coffin

http://www.pres-outlook.com/reports-a-resources/presbyterian-heritage-articles/1683-pastor-educator-ecumenist-henry-sloan-coffin-1877-1954.html

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,722722-1,00.html

http://archive.jta.org/article/1949/01/26/3017334/protestant-church-leader-warns-against-political-zionism-says-judaism-is-a-religion

[xxxviii] Mulhall 76-77; John129; Davidson 20.

[xxxix] Mulhall p 77

[xl] Mulhall p. 77

[xli]

[xlii] Bitter Harvest: Palestine 1914-1979, by Sami Hadawi, p. 17-18.

[xliii] Mulhall, p. 79.

[xliv] Mulhall, 78.

[xlv] Mulhall, p. 80.

[xlvi] Mulhall, 80.

[xlvii] Pillars, p. 20

[xlviii] Pillars, 20

[xlix] Neff, p. 17. Tivnan, p. 30

[l] Stevens, Richard P., American Zionism and U.S. Foreign Policy 1942-1947. New York: Pageant Press. Inc. Reprinted by the Institute for Palestine Studies, 1970, p. 20.

[li] The article “Denying Nazi-Zionist collusion: The Sacramento Bee, Darrell Steinberg, and Islamophobia” refers to the various books that described this: http://ifamericansknew.org/media/sacbee.html

This was well known in the State Department. For example, State Dept. Near East expert Harry N. Howard states: “…there was discussion of liberalizing American immigration laws in this period. The Zionists opposed that liberalization on the ground that this would not be a solution as far as they were concerned. They wanted a political, not necessarily a humanitarian, solution –that is, they wanted a state.” – Oral History Interview with Harry N. Howard, Truman Library, Washington, D.C., June 5, 1973:

http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/howardhn.htm [accessed July 2011]

[lii] Hadawi, P. 38: Citation: The Spectator (London) Magazine, 22 July 1960.

[liii] Mulhall, p. 109.

[liv] Lilienthal, p. 27, citing So Far So Good, by Morris L. Ernst (New York: Harper, 1948), pp. 170-177.

[lv] Mulhall, P. 109.

[lvi] Eveland, William Crane. Ropes of Sand, America’s Failure in the Middle East. W W Norton & Co Inc. p. 48

For more on Eveland see “In Memoriam: A Respectful Dissenter: CIA’s Wilbur Crane Eveland” By Mary Barrett, The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, March 1990, Page 28.

http://washreport.net/component/content/article/125/1077-in-memoriam-wilbur-crane-eveland.html

[lvii] Giladi, Naeim, The Jews of Iraq,” The Link, April ⁄ May 1998

http://www.ifamericansknew.org/history/ref-giladi.html

AND MUCH MORE!

http://www.councilforthenationalinterest.org/israellobby/usisraelrelationship

2 responses to “How Palestine Became Israel

  1. http://www.councilforthenationalinterest.org/israellobby/usisraelrelationship

    [xxviii] http://www.jweekly.com/article/full/9929/balfour-declaration-author-was-a-secret-jew-says-prof/

    THEN TO HEAR OF HUGE ZIONIST SUPPORT IN WESTMINSTER INC CAMERON WHOSE PROUD TO BE A ZIONIST- MY STOMACH TURNS- AT THIS ANTI CHRISTIAN – ANTI MUSLIM MOB!

    DECEPTION OF THE MASSES!

  2. [xiv] Dalin, David G. “At the Summit: Presidents, Presidential Appointments, and Jews,” Maisal, Sandy L. and Forman, Ira N. editors. Jews in American Politics: Essays, Lanham, Md: Roman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2004. P. 32-34. (The appointee was Oscar Straus, whose brothers owned Macy’s Department Store and whom TR later named to his cabinet. Dalin reports a humorous incident that occurred at a dinner years later for Straus and Roosevelt:

    “In his remarks, Roosevelt had stated that Straus had been appointed on the basis of merit and ability alone; the fact that he was Jewish had played no part in Roosevelt’s decision to appoint him. A few minutes later, in introducing Straus, [another speaker, the Jewish financier and philothropist Jacob] Schiff, who was a bit deaf and had evidently not heard Roosevelt’s remarks, recounted how Roosevelt had sought his advice as to who would be the most suitable and eminent Jewish leader to appoint to his cabinet.”

    LOL- PLAYED NO PART MR PRESIDENT- WE DIDN’T DROP TO EARTH DURING A SHOWER!

    President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Jewish Cabal

    by VNN research staff

    Some of these Jews were directly responsible for plunging America into WWII by deliberately alienating America from anti-Communist countries such as Germany and Japan long before the outbreak of hostilities. These Jews also pioneered the idea of Big Egalitarian Government in America; some of them were later discovered to have been spies for the Soviet Union.

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt (photo at right), president of the United States of America, 1933-1945, was himself partly of Dutch-Jewish ancestry.

    1. Bernard M. Baruch — a financier and adviser to FDR.

    2. Felix Frankfurter — Supreme Court Justice; a key player in FDR’s New Deal system.

    3. David E. Lilienthal — director of Tennessee Valley Authority, adviser. The TVA changed the relationship of government-to-business in America.

    4. David Niles — presidential aide.

    5. Louis Brandeis — U.S. Supreme Court Justice; confidante of FDR; “Father” of New Deal.

    6. Samuel I. Rosenman — official speechwriter for FDR.

    7. Henry Morgenthau Jr. — Secretary of the Treasury, “unofficial” presidential adviser. Father of the Morgenthau Plan to re-structure Germany/Europe after WWII.

    8. Benjamin V. Cohen — State Department official, adviser to FDR.

    9. Rabbi Stephen Wise — close pal of FDR, spokesman for the American Zionist movement, head of The American Jewish Congress.

    10. Frances Perkins — Secretary of Labor; allegedly Jewish/adopted at birth; unconfirmed.

    11. Sidney Hillman — presidential adviser.

    12. Anna Rosenberg — longtime labor adviser to FDR, and manpower adviser with the Manpower Consulting Committee of the Army and Navy Munitions Board and the War Manpower Commission.

    13. Herbert H. Lehman — Governor of New York, 1933-1942, Director of U.S. Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, Department of State, 1942-1943; Director-General of UNRRA, 1944 – 1946, pal of FDR.

    14. Herbert Feis — U.S. State Department official, economist, and an adviser on international economic affairs.

    15. R. S. Hecht — financial adviser to FDR.

    16. Nathan Margold — Department of the Interior Solicitor, legal adviser.

    17. Jesse I. Straus — adviser to FDR.

    18. H. J. Laski — “unofficial foreign adviser” to FDR.

    19. E. W. Goldenweiser — Federal Reserve Director.

    20. Charles E. Wyzanski — U.S. Labor department legal adviser.

    21. Samuel Untermyer — lawyer, “unofficial public ownership adviser” to FDR.

    22. Jacob Viner — Tax expert at the U.S. Treasury Department, assistant to the Treasury Secretary.

    23. Edward Filene — businessman, philanthropist, unofficial presidential adviser.

    24. David Dubinsky — Labor leader, president of International Ladies Garment Workers Union.

    25. William C. Bullitt — part-Jewish, ambassador to USSR [is claimed to be Jonathan Horwitz’s grandson; unconfirmed].

    26. Mordecai Ezekiel — Agriculture Department economist.

    27. Abe Fortas — Assistant director of Securities and Exchange Commission, Department of the Interior Undersecretary.

    28. Isador Lubin — Commissioner of Labor Statistics, unofficial labor economist to FDR.

    29. Harry Dexter White [Weiss] — Assistant Secretary of the Treasury; a key founder of the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank; adviser, close pal of Henry Morgenthau. Co-wrote the Morgenthau Plan.

    30. Alexander Holtzoff — Special assistant, U.S. Attorney General’s Office until 1945; [presumed to be Jewish; unconfirmed].

    31. David Weintraub — official in the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations; helped create the United Nations; Secretary, Committee on Supplies, 1944-1946.

    32. Nathan Gregory Silvermaster — Agriculture Department official and head of the Near East Division of the Board of Economic Warfare; helped create the United Nations.

    33. Harold Glasser — Treasury Department director of the division of monetary research. Treasury spokesman on the affairs of United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration.

    34. Irving Kaplan — U.S. Treasury Department official, pal of David Weintraub.

    35. Solomon Adler — Treasury Department representative in China during World War II.

    36. Benjamin Cardozo — U.S. Supreme Court Justice.

    37. Leo Wolman — chairman of the National Recovery Administration’s Labor advisery Board; labor economist.

    38. Rose Schneiderman — labor organizer; on the advisery board of the National Recovery Administration.

    39. Jerome Frank — general counsel to the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Justice, U.S. Court of Appeals, 1941-57.

    40. Gerard Swope — key player in the creation of the N.R.A. [National Recovery Administration]

    41. Herbert Bayard Swope — brother of Gerard

    42. Lucien Koch — consumer division, N.R.A. [apparently-Jewish]

    43. J. David Stern — Federal Reserve Board, appointed by FDR

    44. Nathan Straus — housing adviser

    45. Charles Michaelson — Democratic [DNC] publicity man

    46. Lawrence Steinhardt — ambassador to Soviet Union

    47. Harry Guggenheim — heir to Guggenheim fortune, adviser on aviation

    48. Arthur Garfield Hays — adviser on civil liberties

    49. David Lasser — head of Worker’s Alliance, labor activist

    50. Max Zaritsky — labor adviser

    51. James Warburg — millionaire, early backer of New Deal before backing out

    52. Louis Kirstein — associate of E. Filene

    53. Charles Wyzanski, Jr. — counsel, Dept. of Labor

    54. Charles Taussig — early New Deal adviser

    55. Jacob Baker — assistant to W.P.A. head Harry Hopkins; assistant head of W.P.A. [Works Progress Admin.]

    56. Louis H. Bean — Dept. of Agriculture official

    57. Abraham Fox — research director, Tariff Commission

    58. Benedict Wolf — National Labor Relations Board [NLRB]

    59. William Leiserson — NLRB

    60. David J. Saposs — NLRB

    61. A. H. Meyers — NLRB [New England division]

    62. L. H. Seltzer — head economist at the Treasury Dept.

    63. Edward Berman — Dept. of Labor official

    64. Jacob Perlman — Dept. of Labor official

    65. Morris L. Jacobson — chief statistician of the Government Research Project

    66. Jack Levin — assistant general manager, Rural Electrification Authority

    67. Harold Loeb — economic consultant, N.R.P.

    68. William Seagle — council, Petroleum Labor Policy Board

    69. Herman A. Gray — policy committee, National Housing Conference

    70. Alexander Sachs — rep. of Lehman Bros., early New Deal consultant

    71. Paul Mazur — rep. of Lehman Bros., early consultant for New Deal

    72. Henry Alsberg — head of the Writer’s Project under the W.P.A.

    73. Lincoln Rothschild — New Deal art administrator

    http://www.vanguardnewsnetwork.com/lettersOct-Nov03/102803wsifdrandjews.htm

    http://www.jewwatch.com/jew-occupiedgovernments-usa-news-archive-8.html

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